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Anne M. Merrem and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

and practices of two German sport pedagogy faculty members regarding PE and PETE. Its goal was to tease out the relative effects of and interactions between the participants’ acculturation, professional socialization, organizational socialization, secondary professional socialization, and secondary

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Volker Cihlar and Sonia Lippke

; Schneider, Mergenthaler, Staudinger, & Sackreuther 2015 ), a random sample of community dwelling 55- to 70-year-old people in Germany. The survey was conducted via telephone interviews, with people being contacted by random-digit dialing and asked for their consent to participate. On request, an information

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Annika Frahsa, Anna Streber, Andrea R. Wolff and Alfred Rütten

-related health benefits. Older immigrants are affected by an accumulation of adversities related to immigration and aging. One adversity is shown in that PA levels are generally lower in immigrant versus non-immigrant populations. This holds true in higher income countries, including Germany, where this study

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Yolanda Demetriou, Antje Hebestreit, Anne K. Reimers, Annegret Schlund, Claudia Niessner, Steffen Schmidt, Jonas David Finger, Michael Mutz, Klaus Völker, Lutz Vogt, Alexander Woll and Jens Bucksch

Introduction Even though positive health effects of regular physical activity (PA) are well known, 1 , 2 national and international surveillance data show that PA is the “pill not taken”. This leads to widespread negative health and economic consequences. The 2018 German Report Card on Physical

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Johanna Belz, Jens Kleinert, Jeannine Ohlert, Thea Rau and Marc Allroggen

-off ≥16) 33.5% 19.87 ( SD  = 1.33), 18–24 NCAA Division I athletes Various sports USA Brand et al. ( 2012 ) N  = 786 CIS-D M: 19.3%; F: 36.5% 12–15 Student-athletes of elite schools of sport Various sports Germany Brewer and Petrie ( 1995 ), zit from Wolanin et al. ( 2015 ) N  = 916 CES-D (cut-off ≥16) 27

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Henk Erik Meier and Marcel Leinwather

Research conducted here aims to contribute to the ongoing debate about gender differences in sport spectatorship. While media coverage of sports represents a “gendered experience”, recent research has questioned the explanatory value of anatomical sex for understanding differences in sport consumption. Analyses of TV ratings for German national team football presented here are set out to test the idea that women are more likely to constitute an “armchair” or “fair weather” audience. Even though watching national team football is clearly a male domain and the men’s team is much more popular, female and male audiences for the men’s team respond to the same set of product characteristics, which supports the idea that women follow men in their TV sport consumption. Moreover, results point to gender differences in demand for women’s team matches supporting the idea that it matters how gendered sport is. Suggestions for future research and policy are made.

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Katharina Diehl, Ansgar Thiel, Stephan Zipfel, Jochen Mayer, Alexia Schnell and Sven Schneider

The authors’ aim was to examine the prevalence of (daily) dietary-supplement (DS) use among elite adolescent athletes and to differentiate use by different types of DS according to their function. Data were analyzed for associations between users of these DS types, sociodemographic, sport-specific characteristics, and opinion on the need for DS. In addition, sources of supply and information were examined. In the framework of the GOAL Study, 1,138 German elite adolescent athletes (14–18 yr) answered questions about DS. The data were analyzed to identify groups at risk for using DS after a classification by supplemental function. Of the young athletes, 91.1% reported DS use during the previous month. (Daily) DS use was significantly associated with sex, kind of sport, and the weekly duration of sporting activity. Furthermore, some athletes were required to use DS by their sporting organization. DS use was more likely in these athletes than in those whose sporting organizations had no such requirement. Overall, DS with short- and long-term supplemental function were mostly associated with the use of magnesium. However, DS with medium-term muscle-building function played an important role among daily users. The main source of information about DS was coaches; main source of supply was parents. Professional education is urgently needed, as 9 out of 10 athletes used DS, and strong positive opinions toward the use of DS were present, particularly in the DS users.

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Carina Bauer, Christine Graf, Anna M. Platschek, Heiko K. Strüder and Nina Ferrari

The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing worldwide. 1 , 2 In particular, the number of obese women of childbearing age has grown progressively. 1 , 3 In Germany, 30.0% of 18- to 29-year-old females show a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m 2 ; 20.4% of these women have been classified

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Hans Braun, Karsten Koehler, Hans Geyer, Jens Kleinert, Joachim Mester and Wilhelm Schänzer

Little is known about the prevalence and motives of supplement use among elite young athletes who compete on national and international levels. Therefore, the current survey was performed to assess information regarding the past and present use of dietary supplements among 164 elite young athletes (16.6 ± 3.0 years of age). A 5-page questionnaire was designed to assess their past and present (last 4 weeks) use of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrate, protein, and fat supplements; sport drinks; and other ergogenic aids. Furthermore, information about motives, sources of advice, supplement sources, and supplement contamination was assessed. Eighty percent of all athletes reported using at least 1 supplement, and the prevalence of use was significantly higher in older athletes (p < .05). Among supplement users, minerals, vitamins, sport drinks, energy drinks, and carbohydrates were most frequently consumed. Only a minority of the athletes declared that they used protein/amino acids, creatine, or other ergogenic aids. Major motives for supplement use were health related, whereas performance enhancement and recommendations by others were less frequently reported. Supplements were mainly obtained from parents or by athletes themselves and were mostly purchased in pharmacies, supermarkets, and health-food stores. Among all athletes, only 36% were aware of the problem of supplement contamination. The survey shows that supplement use is common and widespread among German elite young athletes. This stands in strong contrast to recommendations by leading sport organizations against supplement use by underage athletes.

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Gertrud Pfister

In Germany there is a huge discrepancy between positive attitudes toward physical activity and actual practice of sport. According to representative studies more than 80% of the population is convinced that for various reasons, especially those of health, it is very important to take up a sport (Kaschuba, 1989). However, only 21% of the male and no more than 14% of the female population (older than 14) were reported to practice a sport at least once a week (Opaschowski, 1995).

This article focuses on the question of how a relationship to sport develops in the course of the lives of girls and women. The empirical data derives from a project on “Sport in the Lives of Women” in which women active in football (soccer), gymnastics/aerobics and tennis were interviewed about their biographies and their experience with physical activities. The theoretical background is based on approaches towards life course and biography, gender and gender relations, and socialization. Typical patterns of sport involvement in the different stages of life, e.g. the important role of the parents in early childhood and the importance of peers at school were found.,.

In addition, different types of sport commitment could be identified. Certain patterns, for example, were dependent on the combination of the simultaneous practice of different types of sport and the alternation between practice and non-practice of sport. In this way it was possible to distinguish between all-round sportswomen and women who practice sport for reasons of health. In general, sport biographies develop through the close interaction of social factors and individual decisions.