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Luciana Zuest, Saemi Lee, Juliana Leedeman, and Dawn E. Clifford

adopted the Health at Every Size ® (HAES ® ) paradigm, a specific nondiet framework, to ground their educational interventions. The HAES framework proposes a weight-neutral approach to health and advocates for access to quality care for all regardless of body size while promoting engagement in enjoyable

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Ty D. Holcomb, Madison E. Marks, N. Stewart Pritchard, Logan Miller, Mark A. Espeland, Christopher M. Miles, Justin B. Moore, Kristie L. Foley, Joel D. Stitzel, and Jillian E. Urban

sport participation and long-term neurological effects. 1 – 12 Previous studies have also concluded that youth (ages 9–12 y) football athletes endure head acceleration events (HAEs) similar to the magnitude of those sustained by high school or college football athletes. 13 – 15 In recent years, youth

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Luciana Brondino, Esther Suter, Hae-Dong Lee, and Walter Herzog

Muscle inhibition (MI) in human knee extensors increases with increasing maximal voluntary force as a function of knee angle. It was speculated that this angle-dependent MI was modulated by force-dependent feedback, likely Golgi tendon organ pathways. Such angle-dependent MI is of clinical and theoretical importance. The purpose of this study was to determine MI in human elbow flexors for maximal voluntary contractions. Muscle inhibition, elbow flexor force, and electromyographic (EMG) activity were measured in 31 volunteers at elbow angles between 30º and 120º. MI and elbow flexor EMG were the same at all elbow angles. Maximal isometric forces were greatest at the 70º angle, and never fell below 70% of the peak force at any of the tested angles. From these results it is concluded that force-dependent modulation of MI did not occur in the elbow flexors, possibly because maximal isometric force remained relatively close (within 30%) to the peak force. In contrast, force-dependent modulation of MI occurred in the knee extensors at the most extended angles, when the average knee extensor force had dropped to 50% or less of the maximal knee extensor force. It is likely that human maximal voluntary contractions are not associated with a given activation. Rather, activation appears to be modulated by force-dependent feedback at force levels below 70% of the absolute peak force, which manifests itself in a change of MI that parallels the level of maximal isometric force in voluntary contractions.

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Hae-rim Han, Chung-hwi Yi, Sung-hyun You, Heon-seock Cynn, One-bin Lim, and Jae-ik Son

Context: Of the weight-bearing exercises, single-leg squats (SLSs) represent one of the most commonly used hip-strengthening exercises that require more gluteus medius (GMED) activity. To date, no studies have investigated how the 4 SLS exercises affect muscle imbalance of GMED, tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and adductor longus (AL), and kinematics of hip. Objective: To investigate the hip muscle activities, onset time, and kinematics during 4 different SLS exercises (unilateral squat, unilateral wall-squat [UWS], lateral step-down, and front step-down) in subjects with GMED weakness. Design: Repeated-measures experimental design. Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: Twenty-two subjects (11 males and 11 females) participated in this study and were compared using 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. Main Outcome Measures: Surface electromyography was used to measure the muscle activities and onset time of the GMED, TFL, and AL, and 3-dimensional motion tracking system was used to measure the hip adduction and internal/external rotation angles during SLS exercises. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used at a significance level of P < .05. Results: The UWS produced higher GMED/TFL activity ratio and lower GMED/TFL onset time ratio than in the other 3 exercises (P < .05). No difference in GMED/AL activity ratio and GMED/AL onset time ratio was observed. The hip adduction angle was greater in UWS than in the other 3 exercises (P < .05). As for the hip internal/external rotation, lateral step-down exhibited higher hip internal rotation angle than front step-down (P < .05). Conclusion: The UWS may be recommended as an effective exercise for the subjects with GMED weakness, but they should take care to avoid excessive hip adduction during the exercise.

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Seong-won Han, Dae-yeon Lee, Dong-Sung Choi, Boram Han, Jin-Sun Kim, and Hae-Dong Lee

This study aimed to examine whether muscle force and tendon stiffness in a muscle-tendon complex alter synchronously following 8-week whole-body vibration (WBV) training in older people. Forty older women aged 65 years and older were randomly assigned into control (CON, n = 15) and whole-body vibration (WBV) training groups (exposure time, n = 13; vibration intensity, n = 12). For the training groups, a 4-week detraining period was completed following the training period. Throughout the training/detraining period, force of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle and stiffness of the Achilles tendon were assessed four times (0, 4, 8, and 12 weeks) using a combined system of dynamometer and ultrasonography. While muscle force gradually increased throughout the training period (p < .05), a significant increase in tendon stiffness was observed after 8 weeks (p < .05). These findings indicated that, during the early phase of WBV training, muscle force and tendon stiffness changed asynchronously, which might be a factor in possible musculotendinous injuries.

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John A. Hay, Brock University, and John Cairney

An understanding of the habitual physical activity levels of children with chronic disorders is an important consideration relevant to both treatment and clinical monitoring (8). However, a feasible and useful tool for measuring the physical activity levels of children with chronic illness in clinical settings is not readily available. In this article, we review the development and initial psychometric testing (i.e., construct and reliability) of the Habitual Activity Estimation Scale (HAES), a measure developed for use in clinical research. A summary of these investigations suggests that the HAES appears both valid and reliable as a measure of activity in pediatric populations.

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Si Min Lew, Christal K.L. Hewlett, Daniel Anderson, Matthew Finberg, Leo Ng, Angela L. Spence, Andrew Maiorana, Vinutha B. Shetty, and Raymond J. Davey

Questionnaire Construct validity Criterion validity Reliability Responsiveness PAQ-A N N Nil Nil IPAQ-SF Nil N Nil N IPAQ-A Nil Y Y Y PAQ-C Nil N Nil N 3D-PAR Nil Y Nil N HAES Nil N Nil N Abbreviations: 3D-PAR, 3-Day Physical Activity Recall; HAES, Habitual Activity Estimation Scale; IPAQ-A, International

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Alex Jane Smethurst and Iain Stuart Findlay

communication during practice . Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, 3, 121 – 142 . Ong , L.M. , De Haes , J.C. , Hoos , A.M. , & Lammes , F.B. ( 1995 ). Doctor-patient communication: A review of the literature . Social Science & Medicine, 40 ( 7 ), 903 – 918 .

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Alexandro Andrade, Thais Cristina Siqueira, Anderson D’Oliveira, and Fábio Hech Dominski

Siqueira , T.C. , Dominski , F.H. , & Andrade , A. ( 2019 ). Effects of exercise in people with haemophilia: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses . Haemophilia, 25 ( 6 ), 928 – 937 . PubMed ID: 31667968 doi:10.1111/hae.13868 10.1111/hae.13868 Sopina , E. , Sørensen , J

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Benjamin H. Nam, Sangback Nam, Adam Love, Takuya Hayakawa, Rachael C. Marshall, and Kyung Su Jung

five Korean students studying in China––Young-Ho Kim, Kwan-Hae Park, Hyung-Cheol Shin, Yo-Sup Joo, and Jung-Joo Hyun––participated in the Games. Kim won the decathlon, while Joo won the 5,000-m race. Their victories marked the first medals for ethnic Koreans in an international-level sporting event. In