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Andrew Dix

scholarship by Watzlawick et al. ( 1967 ) has notably proclaimed that “one cannot not communicate” (p. 32). For example, the race of an athlete communicates data to referees. Cultural affiliation with a historically black college and university (HBCU) or a predominantly white institution (PWI) represents

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Langston Clark, Anthony Heaven, and Usman Shah

Purpose

The primary purpose of this study was to garner the perspectives of teaching for social justice (TSJ) and teacher education for social justice from individuals who were previously or currently are affiliated with physical education teacher education (PETE) programs at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). A second purpose was to elucidate the meaning of TSJ as it pertains to PETE faculty who were once students of color at HBCUs. Participants: The participants were five Black Americans (three men and two women) alumni of HBCUs.

Method:

The research design was descriptive-qualitative using an interviewing approach for data collection, which also included artifact analysis. (Gay, 1996). Specifically, primary data were collected through semistructured in depth interviews. Data analysis occurred through the usage of immersion.

Results:

The emergent themes were: mainstreaming and maintaining, intergenerational justice, and different and divergent.

Conclusion:

Results of this study indicate that: the nature of social justice is contextual; HBCUs prepare students to teach within both the mainstream and Black communities; and that values and practices related to social justice are passed from teacher educator to teacher education student.

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Willis A. Jones and Wayne L. Black

On November 8, 2019, the men’s basketball team from Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), a historically Black university (HBCU) located in Itta Bena, Mississippi, traveled to Salt Lake City, Utah, for a game against The University of Utah. On paper, the game appeared to be a mismatch. The

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Ketra L. Armstrong

Black consumers' general sport attendance is relatively poor; however, their attendance at historically Black college/university (HBCU) sport events is noteworthy. The purpose of this study was to examine how factors such as general perception of sport, psychosocial involvement with HBCU sports, and intensity of ethnic identification influenced Black consumers' (n = 278) attendance at HBCU sports and their general/non-HBCU sport consumption patterns. Descriptive statistics revealed that the respondents attended HBCU sports more frequently than they did any other type of sport events and were also avid consumers of televised sports. Multivariate multiple regression analyses revealed that intensity of ethnic identification and psychosocial involvement with HBCU sports significantly influenced HBCU sports attendance frequency. Moreover, psychosocial involvement with HBCU sports exerted a profound and positive influence on general sport consumption. This study offered an examination of the social psychology that may under gird Blacks' consumption of sport.

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Jerome Quarterman

The purpose of this investigation was twofold: (a) to identify age, gender, educational background, athletic playing experience, teaching experience, coaching experience, and administrative experience of athletic directors (ADs) of historically black colleges and universities {HBCUs), and (b) to compare these data with data collected in previous studies on ADs of predominantly white colleges and universities. A 20-item questionnaire was designed, and copies were mailed to the 80 ADs of the HBCUs listed in the 1988-1989 National Directory of College Athletics. Fifty-five (68.8%) ADs returned the questionnaire; of these, 53 were black males, 1 was a black female, and 1 was a white male. Although the results revealed that ADs of HBCUs possessed many of the characteristics of ADs of predominantly white colleges and universities, there were differences found between the ADs of this study and those of earlier studies: (a) ADs of HBCUs were, on the average, 5 years younger in age, (b) a higher percentage of ADs of HBCUs held master's and doctorate degrees, (c) a higher percentage of ADs of HBCUs currently had teaching and/or coaching responsibilities, and (d) the median salary ranges were lower for ADs of HBCUs than for ADs of predominantly white colleges and universities. As was the case in earlier studies, few ADs held degrees in sport administration,

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Chelsea Mary Elise Johnson

Feminist sociologists of sport have critiqued cheerleading for perpetuating gendered divisions of labor and dismissing women’s athleticism. However, no research has centered the experiences of black college cheerleaders or cheerleaders with formal feminist education. Through ethnography and interviews with cheerleaders who attend a historically black college (HBCU) for women, this research reveals how race, class, gender, and ideological perspective mutually inform the HBCU cheerleading style and how cheerleaders interpret their own performances. Squad members deploy womanist language, adopt a sexual politics of respectability off the court, and emphasize the cultural constraint of choreography to negotiate a perceived contradiction between being upwardly mobile black college women and participating in sexualized extracurricular athletics. This intersectional analysis makes visible limits to the liberal feminist ideal of individual empowerment for women in sport and the importance of institutional context in race and gender theory.

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Sarah Price, Richard H. Williams, Christopher Wilburn, Portia Williams, Danielle Wadsworth, Wendi Weimar, Jared Russell, and Mary E. Rudisill

This article presents an overview of how faculty in the School of Kinesiology at Auburn University (AU) are working with minority-serving institutions in similar disciplines to promote diversity and inclusion. Florida A&M (FAMU) and Albany State University (ASU) are both Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU), and AU is a Predominantly White Institution (PWI). Part of this initiative has been accomplished through the development of AU’s Future Scholars Summer Research Bridge Program in partnership with south-eastern HBCUs. Success has been measured as an increase in student recruitment and increased opportunities for students from underrepresented groups seeking graduate opportunities. The partnership between FAMU and AU has also provided opportunities for faculty and students to promote diversity and be more inclusive through research collaborations. These partnerships are addressing this important need to be more purposeful in our efforts of establishing greater diversity and being a more inclusive discipline.

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Sheriece Sadberry and Michael Mobley

Research has shown that African American college students have a difficult time adjusting at predominately White institutions (PWIs) in comparison with historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) with regard to both general and race-related stressors (Neville, Heppner, Ji, & Thye, 2004; Prillerman, Myers, & Smedley, 1989; Sedlacek, 1999). For college student-athletes, the campus environment can challenge their capacity to ft in and adhere to academic and social expectations, perhaps especially for Black student-athletes (BSA). The current study therefore examined the sociocultural and mental health adjustment of 98 BSA based on their perceived social support, perceived campus racial climate, team cohesion, and life events using latent profle analysis (LPA). Results indicated three distinct profile groups: Low Social Support/Cohesion, High Minority Stress, and High Social Support/Cohesion. Profiles were predictive of adjustment concerns and campus setting (PWIs vs. HBCUs), highlighting within-group differences among BSA. Implications for interventions to facilitate and support healthy adjustment and success for BSA are discussed.

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Andrew Dix

basketball teams from historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). The findings from the Dix ( 2019 ) investigation revealed that women’s college basketball teams from predominantly White institutions (PWIs) were called for significantly fewer personal fouls than women’s college basketball teams

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Jerome Quarterman, Geraldine Harris, and Rose M. Chew

The present investigation examined how African American students rated the values of the basic instructional physical education activity program at two historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) based on a 24-item questionnaire. Descriptive data indicated that the students rated keeping in good health and physical condition as the most important value. A principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation revealed five underlying factors that appeared related to (a) physical self-efficacy, (b) a commitment to lifelong participation, (c) health-related physical fitness, (d) health/aesthetic benefits, and (e) social benefits. Physical self-efficacy appeared to be the most significant, accounting for the largest portion of the explained variance. African American female students placed more emphasis on health/aesthetic benefits, and African American male students placed emphasis on the social benefits. Overall, results of the present investigation generally appeared consistent with findings of earlier studies conducted at predominantly white Colleges and universities.