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James D. LeCheminant, Larry A. Tucker, Bruce W. Bailey and Travis Peterson

Purpose:

To determine objectively measured intensity of physical activity (iPA) and its relationship to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and the LDL/HDL ratio in women.

Methods:

Two hundred seventy-two women (40.1 y) wore CSA-MTI model 7164 accelerometers to index intensity and volume of physical activity for 7 d. Blood lipids were measured at a certified laboratory.

Results:

HDL-C was 52.1 ± 10.1, 52.2 ± 9.7, and 56.1 ± 11.1 mg/dL for the low, medium, and high intensity groups (P = 0.040), LDL-C differences were not significant (P = 0.23). LDL/HDL differences were observed (P = 0.030) with specific differences between the low and high iPA groups (P = 0.006). For HDL-C and LDL/HDL, significant relationships remained with control of dietary fat and age but not body fat percentage or volume of activity.

Conclusions:

High iPA had higher HDL-C levels and lower LDL/HDL ratios than low and medium iPA. The iPA was predictive of HDL-C partly due to its strong association with volume of activity and body fat percentage.

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Daniela A. Rubin, Robert G. McMurray, Joanne S. Harrell, Barbara W. Carlson and Shrikant Bangdiwala

The purpose of this project was to determine the accuracy in lipids measurement and risk factor classification using Reflotron, Cholestech, and Ektachem DT-60 dry-chemistry analyzers. Plasma and capillary venous blood from fasting subjects (n = 47) were analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) using these analyzers and a CDC certified laboratory. Accuracy was evaluated by comparing the results of each portable analyzer against the CDC reference method. One-way ANOVAs were performed for TC, HDL-C, and TG between all portable analyzers and the reference method. Chi-square was used for risk classification (2001 NIH Guidelines). Compared to the reference method, the Ektachem and Reflotron provided significantly lower values for TC (p < .05). In addition, the Cholestech and Ektachem values for HDL-C were higher than the CDC (p < .05). The Reflotron and Cholestech provided higher values of TG than the CDC (p < .05). Chi-squares analyses for risk classification were not significant (p > .45) between analyzers. According to these results, the Ektachem and Cholestech analyzers met the current NCEP III guidelines for accuracy in measurement of TC, while only Ektachem met guidelines for TG. All 3 analyzers provided a good overall risk classification; however, values of HDL-C should be only used for screening purposes.

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Evelien Mertens, Peter Clarys, Johan Lefevre, Ruben Charlier, Sara Knaeps and Benedicte Deforche

Background:

Longitudinal evidence concerning the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and blood lipids and between anthropometric parameters (ANTP) and blood lipids is limited. This study aimed to investigate the association between changes in CRF and ANTP and changes in blood lipids.

Methods:

In 2002–2004 and 2012–2014, 652 participants were tested. CRF was measured as VO2peak using a maximal ergometer test. Waist circumference (WC) and Body Mass Index (BMI) were used as ANTP. Blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. A linear regression analysis was performed to investigate associations between changes in CRF and ANTP and changes in blood lipids.

Results:

After adjustment a decrease in CRF was associated with an increase in triglycerides and a decrease in HDL cholesterol in men. An increase in WC was associated with an increase in TC, LDL cholesterol and ratio total/HDL cholesterol and a decrease in HDL cholesterol, while an increase in BMI was associated with an increase in ratio total/HDL cholesterol and a decrease in HDL cholesterol.

Conclusions:

WC and BMI were more longitudinally associated with blood lipids compared with CRF. Improving ANTP can enhance the blood lipid profile, while CRF had only limited influence.

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Ezzedine Bouhlel, Myriam Denguezli, Monia Zaouali, Zouhair Tabka and Roy J. Shephard

Purpose:

To evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on parameters of insulin resistance in trained athletes at rest and after aerobic exercise.

Methods:

Nine male rugby players (age 19 ± 2 yr, height 1.78 ± 0.74 m) were tested 3 times: 1 week before observance of Ramadan (C), at the end of the first week (R1), and during the fourth week (R2). They performed a progressive cycle-ergometer test at each visit. Data collected at rest and at the end of aerobic exercise included simple anthropometry (body mass, body-mass index, body fat, fat-free mass), biochemical parameters (serum glucose, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, and serum proteins), and selected hormone concentrations (plasma insulin, leptin, and adiponectin).

Results:

Ramadan fasting was associated with a reduction of body mass and body fat (R2 vs. C, p < .01) without significant change in leptin or adiponectin levels.

Conclusion:

Lipolysis might have occurred because of increased plasma triglycerides and HDL cholesterol concentrations.

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Laura Banks, Cedric Manlhiot, Stafford W. Dobbin, Don Gibson, Karen Stearne, Jolie Davies-Shaw, Nita Chahal, Amanda Fisher and Brian McCrindle

Background: Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) has been negatively associated with cardiometabolic risk. We sought to determine if MVPA interacts with body-mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in determining cardiometabolic risk in adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional study included cardiometabolic risk (blood pressure [BP], nonfasting lipids) screening and a 7-day recall physical activity questionnaire in 4,104 adolescents (51% male; mean age: 14.6 ± 0.5 years old). WC- and BMI- percentiles were used to define anthropometric categories (including obese adolescents: 390th WC, 385th BMI). Results: Obesity in adolescents was associated with lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (Estimate [EST]: -0.28(0.07) mmol/L, p < .001) and higher non-HDL cholesterol (EST: +0.38(0.14) mmol/L, p = .008). Each additional day with 320 min of MVPA was associated with lower non-HDL cholesterol (EST: −0.014(0.005) mmol/L/days/week, p = .003), independent of anthropometric category. Each additional day with 320 min of MVPA was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) for higher BP category in obese adolescents (OR: 1.055, 95% CI: 1.028−1.084, p < .001) and a lower odds ratio for higher BP category in presumably-muscular adolescents (OR: 0.968, 95% CI: 0.934−0.989, p = .005). Conclusions: An increase in MVPA was associated with an increased likelihood for higher BP category in obese adolescents. The dose-response relationship between physical activity and cardiometabolic risk needs to be evaluated in adolescents of varying anthropometry categories.

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Ryan D. Burns, Timothy A. Brusseau, Yi Fang, You Fu and James C. Hannon

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), aerobic fitness, and cardio-metabolic risk factors in Hispanic children from low-income U.S. schools.

Method:

Participants were 198 Hispanic children from low-income schools (Mean age = 10.3 ± 0.5 years; 119 girls, 79 boys). Waist circumference, height, and cardio-metabolic blood markers were collected in a fasted state. Estimated VO2 Peak scores were also collected. Multilevel generalized mixed effects models were employed to examine the independent effect of WHtR and aerobic fitness classification on a child meeting recommended levels for each cardio-metabolic blood marker.

Results:

A child having a WHtR < 0.5 related to meeting recommended levels for HDL cholesterol (OR = 3.25, p < .01), triglycerides (OR = 2.94, p < .01), glucose (OR = 3.42, p < .01), and related to a lower continuous Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) score (β = −8.5 mmHg, p < .01). Aerobic fitness classification only independently related to meeting recommended levels for HDL cholesterol (OR = 2.94, p = .010).

Conclusion:

Having a WHtR < 0.5 independently associated with favorable cardio-metabolic blood markers and thus serves as an effective screening tool for cardio-metabolic risk in Hispanic children from low-income schools.

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César Agostinis-Sobrinho, Carla Moreira, Sandra Abreu, Luís Lopes, José Oliveira-Santos, Jostein Steene-Johannessen, Jorge Mota and Rute Santos

Purpose:

This study examined the independent associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and circulating adiponectin concentration in adolescents, controlling for several potential covariates.

Methods:

This is a cross-sectional study in Portuguese adolescents. A sample of 529 (267 girls) aged 12–18 years were included and categorized as overweight and nonoverweight. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by 20 meters shuttle run test. We measured serum adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fasting glucose, insulin and HDL-cholesterol.

Results:

After adjustment for age, sex, pubertal stage, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, socioeconomic status, body fat percentage, insulin resistance, HDL-cholesterol and C-reactive protein, regression analysis showed a significant inverse association between adiponectin and cardiorespiratory fitness in nonoverweight participants (B=-0.359; p < .042). Analysis of covariance showed a significant difference between the highest cardiorespiratory fitness Healthy zone (above healthy zone) and the Under and the Healthy cardiorespiratory fitness zones in nonoverweight adolescents (p = .03) (F (2, 339) = 3.156, p < .001).

Conclusion:

Paradoxically, serum adiponectin levels are inversely associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in nonoverweight, but not in overweight adolescents. In nonoverweight adolescents, those with highest levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (above healthy zone) presented lower levels of adiponectin compared with those in Under and Healthy cardiorespiratory fitness zones.

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Sonia Vega-López, Giselle A.P. Pignotti, Colleen Keller, Michael Todd, Barbara Ainsworth, Allison Nagle Williams, Kathie Records, Dean Coonrod and Paska Permana

Background:

The effects of moderate intensity walking on lipoprotein remodeling in postpartum Hispanic women are unknown.

Methods:

Sedentary postpartum Hispanic women (28.2 ± 5.6 y; BMI = 29.3 ± 3.3 kg/m2) participating in a social support physical activity (PA) intervention, were randomly assigned to a 12-month walking program (walkers; n = 22; target 150 min/wk, moderate intensity) or a control group (nonwalkers; n = 22). Fasting lipids and cholesterol distribution within low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles were measured at baseline (BL), 6 months, and 12 months.

Results:

Walkers had an 11% increase and nonwalkers a 7% decrease in HDL cholesterol from 6 to 12 months (P = .0367) without an effect on LDL cholesterol. Whereas nonwalkers had virtually no change in mean LDL particle size, walkers had a borderline reduction in LDL size from BL (268.7 ± 4.1 Å) to 6 months (266.9 ± 4.9 Å), followed by a significant increase in size by 12 months (269.7 ± 4.1 Å; P = .011). The proportion of cholesterol in large LDL particles decreased by 15% from BL to 6 months, but subsequently increased 25% by 12 months among walkers; changes among nonwalkers were smaller and in opposite direction (4% and –3%, respectively; P = .0004).

Conclusions:

Participation in the social-support PA intervention resulted in slightly increased HDL cholesterol concentrations and a modest and beneficial shift toward larger, less atherogenic LDL particles.

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Susan B. Sisson, Ashley E. Gibson, Kevin Short, Andrew W. Gardner, Teresa Whited, Candace Robledo and David M. Thompson

The purpose of this study was to determine if light physical activity (LPA) minimizes the impairment of cardiometabolic risk factors following a typical meal in adolescents. Eighteen adolescents (50% male, 14.8 ± 2.3 yrs) consumed a meal (32% fat, 14% protein, 53% carbohydrate), then completed a walking (1.5mph for 45 min of each hour) or sitting treatment for 3 hr in randomized order on separate days. Following the meal, HDL cholesterol declined 4.8% but remained higher during walking at 3 hr (42.1mg/dl ± 9.3) than sitting (8.4% decline; 40.5mg/dL ± 9.9; treatment × time interaction, p < .03). The 3-hr insulin was lower after walking (24.8μIU/ml ± 33.4) than sitting (37.8μIU/ml ± 34.7; treatment × time interaction, p < .0001). Triglycerides increased by ~40% above baseline at 1 and 2 hr, with higher values for walking (treatment × time interaction, p < .02). However by 3 hr, triglycerides were not different from baseline. Area under the curve (AUC) analyses were not significantly different between treatments for any outcomes. Although minor, LPA appears to mitigate the undesirable postprandial changes in HDL cholesterol and insulin but not triglycerides, following a typical meal in adolescents.

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Chia-Lin Li, Feng-Hsuan Liu and Jen-Der Lin

The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the effect of physical activity independent of obesity on metabolic risk factors. A total of 358 participants were recruited from the Department of Health Management of Chang Gung Medical Center. Physical activity was assessed using a 3-d activity record. Body-mass index (BMI) and metabolic risk factors were also assessed. Our findings demonstrate that an effect of obesity that was statistically independent of the levels of physical activity is associated with metabolic risk factors. Moreover, physical activity displayed inverse associations with triglycerides, and fasting plasma glucose and a positive association with HDL cholesterol. Those participants with time spent in moderate activity more than 0.5 h each day had significantly less risk of high fasting glucose. Significantly, these associations were independent of BMI.