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Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de Lima, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Kelly Samara da Silva, Andreia Pelegrini, Isabela de Carlos Back and Edio Luiz Petroski

Purpose:

To examine aerobic fitness, total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and also patterns in terms of MVPA between children and adolescents with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and controls, and to determine whether differences, if any, are associated with HIV, sex and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

Method:

A cross-sectional analysis was carried out with 130 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 15 years, divided into two groups (HIV group= 65 patients, control group= 65 healthy participants). Total MVPA was measured by accelerometers and 5 and 10-min bouts were estimated. The peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) was measured by breath-by-breath respiratory exchange in an incremental cycle ergometer test.

Results:

HIV-positive participants had lower peak VO2 (39.2 ± 6.8 vs. 44.5 ± 9.1 ml.kg-1min-1), lower bouts of MVPA of 5-min (19.7 ± 16.6 vs. 26.6 ± 23.5) and 10-min (3.6 ± 3.9 vs. 5.8 ± 7.2), but similar total MVPA (49.5 ± 28.9 vs. 49.1 ± 30.6 min.day-1). HIV infection in untreated, nonprotease inhibitors (PI)- based HAART and PI-based HAART patients was associated with lower 8.5 (95%CI= 12.5–4.6), 7.1 (95%CI= 10.6–3.6) and 4.5 (95%CI= 7.0–2.0) ml.kg-1min-1 of peak VO2.

Conclusion:

Children and adolescents with HIV demonstrated lower aerobic fitness compared with the controls and the absence of HAART may increase peak VO2 impairment. Lower bouts of MVPA were also observed in HIV group despite the similar values of total MVPA of controls.

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Bruno G.G. da Costa, Kelly S. da Silva, Rafael M. da Costa, Edio L. Petroski, Isabela C. Back, Paulo H.A. Guerra and Luiz R.A. de Lima

, owing to chronic diseases, vulnerable children and adolescents are at risk of high SB and cardiometabolic abnormalities ( 16 , 31 ). Children and adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may experience impairments as a result of the HIV infection and the adverse effects of drugs like

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Bruno P. Melo, Débora A. Guariglia, Rafael E. Pedro, Dennis A. Bertolini, Solange de Paula Ramos, Sidney B. Peres and Solange M. Franzói de Moraes

Physical activity has been considered as major contribution in prevention and treatment of several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease. 1 One of many problems affecting individuals living with HIV/AIDS (ILWHA) under antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the early onset of chronic diseases

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Matthieu Dagenais, Nancy M. Salbach, Dina Brooks and Kelly K. O’Brien

For those with access to antiretroviral therapy, HIV has become a chronic illness whereby individuals are living longer with the health-related challenges of HIV and multimorbidity. 1 – 3 Multimorbidity, defined as the simultaneous occurrence of 2 or more medical conditions, such as diabetes

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Bindu P. Gopalan, Mary Dias, Karthika Arumugam, Reena R. D’Souza, Mathew Perumpil, Prasanna Kulkarni, Udaykumar Ranga and Anita Shet

Improved access to diagnosis and widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has decreased the incidence of opportunistic infection-related morbidity and mortality in individuals living with HIV. However, despite optimal virological suppression with ART non-AIDS defining illnesses (non

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Shari Lee Dworkin and Faye Linda Wachs

This paper analyzes how mainstream print media polices sexuality through framings of HIV-positive male athletes. We analyze the HIV-positive announcements of Magic Johnson, Greg Louganis, and Tommy Morrison. Specifically, we discuss differences between the framing of gay men (Louganis) and self-identified heterosexual men (Johnson and Morrison). First, there is an extensive search for the ways Magic Johnson and Tommy Morrison contracted HIV/AIDS. Media coverage emphasizes that “straights can get it too” through promiscuity and a “fast lane” lifestyle. Consistent with the historically automatic conflation of HIV/AIDS with gay identity, the media pose no inquiries into the cause of Louganis’ HIV transmission. We close our discussion by focusing on the meaning of extending the signifier of HIV/AIDS beyond gay bodies to include working class and black male bodies. Media surveillance of sexual identity and the body reinforces hegemonic masculinity in sport while feeding into the current sexual hierarchy in U.S. culture.

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Marc K. Hellerstein

Changes in body composition and metabolism have been a central feature of HIV infection from the outset—initially, as the wasting syndrome and, more recently, as metabolic and body fat redistribution syndromes associated with antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Here, advances in physiologic and biochemical understanding of these conditions are reviewed. First, the pathophysiology of wasting in HIV-1 infection is discussed, focusing on the failure of nutrients to increase lean tissue (“anabolic block”) and the role of hypogonadism. Results of anabolic interventions, including recombinant growth hormone, testosterone, and progressive resistance exercise, are presented. Next, ARV-associated disorders are reviewed, including lipoatrophy and an hypothesized “mitochondrial toxicity.” The possibility of establishing pathogenesis in vivo in humans, by direct measurement of mitochondrial DNA synthesis and adipocyte proliferation, is discussed. In summary, important advances have occurred toward the goal of explaining body composition and metabolic abnormalities associated with HIV disease.

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Curt L. Lox, Edward MeAuley and R. Shawn Tucker

The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of regular exercise participation as an intervention for enhancing subjective well-being in an HIV-1 population. Specifically, this study investigated the effects of a 12-week exercise intervention on physical self-efficacy, positive and negative mood, and life satisfaction. Participants (N = 33) were randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise training group (n = 11), a resistance weight-training group (n = 12), or a stretching/flexibility control group ( n = 10). Results indicated that both aerobic and weight-training exercise interventions enhanced physical self-efficacy, positive and negative mood, and satisfaction with life. Conversely, control participants experienced declines in each of these variables. Taken together, the findings seem to suggest that exercise may be one therapeutic modality capable of enhancing components of subjective well-being and should be considered a complimentary therapy for treating the psychological and emotional manifestations associated with a positive HIV-1 diagnosis.

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Davy Vancampfort, James Mugisha, Marc De Hert, Michel Probst and Brendon Stubbs

Background:

Sedentary behavior is independently associated with an increased risk of poor mental health, developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and premature mortality. Despite the knowledge that CVD is one of the leading causes of non-AIDS related premature mortality in people living with HIV (PLWH), relatively little attention has been attributed to sedentary behavior in this population. The aims of this meta-analysis were to (a) establish the pooled mean time spent sedentary, (b) investigate predictors of sedentary levels, and (c) explore differences with age- and gender-matched healthy controls.

Methods:

Two independent authors searched major databases until August 2016. A random effects meta-analysis was performed.

Results:

Across 6 unique cross-sectional studies, including 9 sedentary levels, there were 523 (292 men) PLWH (age range = 37 to 58 years). PLWH spent 533 min/day (95% CI = 466 to 599) engaging in sedentary behavior. There was a trend (P = .07) for higher levels of sedentary behavior in self-report measures (551 min, 95% CI = 543 to 560, N = 4) than in objective sedentary behavior time (505 min, 95% CI = 498 to 512, N = 3). The time PLWH spend engaging in sedentary behavior is among the highest levels reported in the literature.

Conclusions:

Given that sedentary behavior is an independent predictor of CVD, future lifestyle interventions specifically targeting the prevention of sedentary behavior in PLWH are warranted.

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Hugo Ribeiro Zanetti, Lucas Gonçalves da Cruz, Camilo Luís Monteiro Lourenço, Giovana Castilho Ribeiro, Marco Aurélio Ferreira de Jesus Leite, Fernando Freitas Neves, Mário Leon Silva-Vergara and Edmar Lacerda Mendes

Background:

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is associated with high total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), triglyceride (TG), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. The natural course of the HIV infection reduces the high-density lipoprotein level (HDL-c). Thus, physical exercise plays a key role in reducing the effects of HAART and HIV.

Methods:

Thirty people living with HIV (PLHIV) were randomized to the nonlinear resistance training (NLRT) and control (CON) groups. The NLRT group underwent 12 weeks of resistance training, whereas the CON group maintained usual daily activities. All volunteers underwent anthropometric, body composition, and biochemical assessments at the beginning and end of 12 weeks.

Results:

After 12 weeks, the NLRT group had increased lean body mass (P < .0001), and a reduction in body fat mass (P < .0001) and body fat percentage (P < .0001). The levels of TC (P < .0001), LDL-c (P = .049), TG (P < .0001), and CRP (P = .004) were reduced, and the HDL-c level increased (P < .0001).

Conclusion

Twelve weeks of NLRT causes beneficial changes in the body composition, lipid profile, and inflammation markers in PLHIV, and it can be used in this patient population.