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Charles M. Tipton

Within the archives of Springfield College are the unofficial minutes of the Gulick Academy of Physical Education from 1906–1909. Surprisingly, the attendance, participation, and presentations of Clark W. Hetherington were not very impressive, which raised the question, what had he accomplished to warrant the Academy designating him as its first member and president—or for making the Hetherington Award its highest honor? The answer is complex, but insights can be obtained from the results of an early association with Thomas D. Woods and from the implementation of his philosophy of play by select schools and states. By 1926, many universities had adopted his objectives and curricula for physical education, while his philosophy for physical education began to be promoted by the physical education profession. However, since 2010 the term physical education has been removed from our title and bylaws. Consequently, should we continue to have our highest honor be identified with the Hetherington Award? I sincerely hope so, but the issue should be addressed by our membership.

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Alison M. Wrynn and Paulina A. Rodriguez Burciaga

The story of the origin of today’s National Academy of Kinesiology begins in 1904 when Luther Halsey Gulick made the first attempt at creating an Academy. Due to various factors, this effort waned. In 1926, Clark Hetherington called together four of his colleagues to initiate what we now recognize as the Academy. This article will describe and provide an analysis of the stories of the first 10 members of the Academy as well as provide the context within which the Academy emerged.

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Robert W. Christina

By 1967, motor control and learning researchers had adopted an information processing (IP) approach. Central to that research was understanding how movement information was processed, coded, stored, and represented in memory. It also was centered on understanding motor control and learning in terms of Fitts’ law, closed-loop and schema theories, motor programs, contextual interference, modeling, mental practice, attentional focus, and how practice and augmented feedback could be organized to optimize learning. Our constraints-based research from the 1980s into the 2000s searched for principles of “self-organization”, and answers to the degrees-of-freedom problem, that is, how the human motor system with so many independent parts could be controlled without the need for an executive decision maker as proposed by the IP approach. By 2007 we were thinking about where the IP and constraints-based views were divergent and complementary, and whether neural-based models could bring together the behavior and biological mechanisms underlying the processes of motor control and learning.

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Anna Robins and Marion M. Hetherington

A qualitative research study investigated food choice by triathletes prior to training and competition, and gauged attitudes towards nutritional management. Five focus groups were conducted with 7 male and 6 female non-elite triath-letes. Sessions were semi-structured, tape recorded, and transcribed verbatim for coding and analysis. Transcripts were coded using grounded theory and higher order themes emerged including: “somatic complaints,” “performance,” “trust,” “preferences,” and “routine.” Food choices, especially those of the more competitive triathletes, were made to maximize performance. Choices were based on past experience and “trial and error” rather than specialist advice. Subjects varied in nutritional knowledge, which appeared to relate to the level of competitiveness. More competitive triathletes were interested in improving performance but distrusted others making their nutritional choices. Less competitive triathletes embraced nutritional manipulation for gains in cognitive and athletic performance. “Trust” became a focus of the study and warrants further investigation, as this is a crucial component of providing nutritional advice to competitive athletes and to the general population.

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Bradley J. Cardinal

earned a doctorate of medicine (M.D.) degree. Many of Hanna’s students at Oberlin became eminent leaders in physical education and pioneers in the Academy, including Gulick, Fred Eugene Leonard (FNAK In Memoriam), Jay B. Nash (FNAK #5, Academy president during 1945–1947, and 1956 [inaugural] Hetherington

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Jennifer W. Bea, Robert M. Blew, Carol Howe, Megan Hetherington-Rauth, and Scott B. Going


This systematic review evaluates the relationship between resistance training and metabolic function in youth.


PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, and ClinicalTrials. gov were searched for articles that (1): studied children (2); included resistance training (3); were randomized interventions; and (4) reported markers of metabolic function. The selected studies were analyzed using the Cochrane Risk-of-Bias Tool.


Thirteen articles met inclusion criteria. Mean age ranged from 12.2 to 16.9 years, but most were limited to high school (n = 11) and overweight/obese (n = 12). Sample sizes (n = 22–304), session duration (40–60min), and intervention length (8–52 wks) varied. Exercise frequency was typically 2–3 d/wk. Resistance training was metabolically beneficial compared with control or resistance plus aerobic training in 5 studies overall and 3 out of the 4 studies with the fewest threats to bias (p ≤ .05); each was accompanied by beneficial changes in body composition, but only one study adjusted for change in body composition.


Limited evidence suggests that resistance training may positively affect metabolic parameters in youth. Well-controlled resistance training interventions of varying doses are needed to definitively determine whether resistance training can mitigate metabolic dysfunction in youth and whether training benefits on metabolic parameters are independent of body composition changes.

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Sharon Hetherington, Paul Swinton, Tim Henwood, Justin Keogh, Paul Gardiner, Anthony Tuckett, Kevin Rouse, and Tracy Comans

In this article, the authors assessed the cost-effectiveness of center-based exercise training for older Australians. The participants were recipients of in-home care services, and they completed 24 weeks of progressive resistance plus balance training. Transport was offered to all participants. A stepped-wedge randomized control trial produced pre-, post-, and follow-up outcomes and cost data, which were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios per quality-adjusted life year gained. Analyses were conducted from a health provider perspective and from a government perspective. From a health-service provider perspective, the direct cost of program provision was $303 per person, with transport adding an additional $1,920 per person. The incremental cost–utility ratio of the program relative to usual care was $70,540 per quality-adjusted life year over 6 months, decreasing to $37,816 per quality-adjusted life year over 12 months. The findings suggest that Muscling Up Against Disability offers good value for the money within commonly accepted threshold values.

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Tim Henwood, Sharon Hetherington, Madeleine Purss, Kevin Rouse, Julie Morrow, and Michele Smith

Exercise has proven health benefits for older adults independent of age, disability, and disease. However, barriers to exercise participation exist, including travel to, and access to, appropriate facilities and programs. Evidence shows that in-home exercise delivered by allied health professionals can improve physical health and prolong independence among individuals with government supported aged care packages. A less costly alternative is program delivery by home care workers. However, effective training for workers and resources to guide the consumer is required. This project evaluated an exercise training module for home care workers and a consumer resource to promote in-home exercise participation among older Australians with government supported aged care packages. Outcomes included a significant improvement in functional capacity as measured by the short physical performance battery (mean increase of 1.4 points), a 19% reduction in participants classified as frail and a reduction in healthcare service access of 47% across the intervention.

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Inês R. Correia, João P. Magalhães, Pedro B. Júdice, Megan Hetherington-Rauth, Sofia P. Freitas, Júlia M. Lopes, Francisco F. Gama, and Luís B. Sardinha

In a randomized crossover trial, we examined the effects of interrupting sedentary behavior on glycemic control in trained older adults, before and after 2 weeks of detraining. Fourteen participants (65–90 years old) completed two 7-hr conditions before and after 2 weeks of detraining: (a) uninterrupted sitting (SIT) and (b) sitting plus 2 min of moderate-intensity activity every 30 min (INT). Both before and after detraining, no differences were observed for 7-hr glucose area under the curve (7 hr AUC) and mean glucose between sitting plus 2 min of moderate-intensity activity and uninterrupted sitting conditions. After detraining and for the SIT condition, higher values of 7-hr AUC (p = .014) and mean glucose (p = .015) were observed, indicating worsened glycemic control. No changes were observed in INT condition between both time points. Frequent interruptions in sedentary behavior had no effect on glycemic control, prior to or after detraining. Even so, older adults experiencing a short-term detraining period should avoid prolonged bouts of sedentary behavior that may jeopardize their glycemic control.

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Mark Dyreson

American Academy of Physical Education. The founders, Clark W. Hetherington, R. Tait McKenzie, William Burdick, Thomas A. Storey, and Jay B. Nash, quickly expanded the society and, in 1930, promulgated a constitution for their institution ( Park, 1980 , 2007 ). In their own recollections of the origins of