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Willis A. Jones and Wayne L. Black

intercollegiate athletics. Athletics data source: USA TODAY’s NCAA athletics finance database . Retrieved from Cooper , J.N. , Cavil , J.K. , & Cheeks , G. ( 2014 ). The state of intercollegiate athletics at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs): Past

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Andrew Dix

scholarship by Watzlawick et al. ( 1967 ) has notably proclaimed that “one cannot not communicate” (p. 32). For example, the race of an athlete communicates data to referees. Cultural affiliation with a historically black college and university (HBCU) or a predominantly white institution (PWI) represents

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Jerome Quarterman, Geraldine Harris, and Rose M. Chew

The present investigation examined how African American students rated the values of the basic instructional physical education activity program at two historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) based on a 24-item questionnaire. Descriptive data indicated that the students rated keeping in good health and physical condition as the most important value. A principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation revealed five underlying factors that appeared related to (a) physical self-efficacy, (b) a commitment to lifelong participation, (c) health-related physical fitness, (d) health/aesthetic benefits, and (e) social benefits. Physical self-efficacy appeared to be the most significant, accounting for the largest portion of the explained variance. African American female students placed more emphasis on health/aesthetic benefits, and African American male students placed emphasis on the social benefits. Overall, results of the present investigation generally appeared consistent with findings of earlier studies conducted at predominantly white Colleges and universities.

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Richard M. Southall, E. Woodrow Eckard, Mark S. Nagel, and Morgan H. Randall

Within the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) and Division I men’s basketball many profit-athletes travel to Predominately White Institution (PWI) work sites for “pre-professional” sport opportunities. At most PWIs the Black male student population is less than ten percent, while football and men’s basketball rosters are overwhelmingly comprised of Black athletes. This study—using multiple regression models—examines the relationship between athletic success and profit-athletes’ graduation rates. The main dependent variable is the Adjusted Graduation Gap (AGG) as a measure of academic success. Results indicated Black profit-athletes who play for the most successful FBS football and NCAA D-I men’s basketball programs graduate at significantly lower rates than full-time male students. However, at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Black football and men’s basketball players graduate at higher rates than full-time male students.

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Sarah Price, Richard H. Williams, Christopher Wilburn, Portia Williams, Danielle Wadsworth, Wendi Weimar, Jared Russell, and Mary E. Rudisill

This article presents an overview of how faculty in the School of Kinesiology at Auburn University (AU) are working with minority-serving institutions in similar disciplines to promote diversity and inclusion. Florida A&M (FAMU) and Albany State University (ASU) are both Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU), and AU is a Predominantly White Institution (PWI). Part of this initiative has been accomplished through the development of AU’s Future Scholars Summer Research Bridge Program in partnership with south-eastern HBCUs. Success has been measured as an increase in student recruitment and increased opportunities for students from underrepresented groups seeking graduate opportunities. The partnership between FAMU and AU has also provided opportunities for faculty and students to promote diversity and be more inclusive through research collaborations. These partnerships are addressing this important need to be more purposeful in our efforts of establishing greater diversity and being a more inclusive discipline.

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Sheriece Sadberry and Michael Mobley

Research has shown that African American college students have a difficult time adjusting at predominately White institutions (PWIs) in comparison with historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) with regard to both general and race-related stressors (Neville, Heppner, Ji, & Thye, 2004; Prillerman, Myers, & Smedley, 1989; Sedlacek, 1999). For college student-athletes, the campus environment can challenge their capacity to ft in and adhere to academic and social expectations, perhaps especially for Black student-athletes (BSA). The current study therefore examined the sociocultural and mental health adjustment of 98 BSA based on their perceived social support, perceived campus racial climate, team cohesion, and life events using latent profle analysis (LPA). Results indicated three distinct profile groups: Low Social Support/Cohesion, High Minority Stress, and High Social Support/Cohesion. Profiles were predictive of adjustment concerns and campus setting (PWIs vs. HBCUs), highlighting within-group differences among BSA. Implications for interventions to facilitate and support healthy adjustment and success for BSA are discussed.

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Langston Clark, Anthony Heaven, and Usman Shah


The primary purpose of this study was to garner the perspectives of teaching for social justice (TSJ) and teacher education for social justice from individuals who were previously or currently are affiliated with physical education teacher education (PETE) programs at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). A second purpose was to elucidate the meaning of TSJ as it pertains to PETE faculty who were once students of color at HBCUs. Participants: The participants were five Black Americans (three men and two women) alumni of HBCUs.


The research design was descriptive-qualitative using an interviewing approach for data collection, which also included artifact analysis. (Gay, 1996). Specifically, primary data were collected through semistructured in depth interviews. Data analysis occurred through the usage of immersion.


The emergent themes were: mainstreaming and maintaining, intergenerational justice, and different and divergent.


Results of this study indicate that: the nature of social justice is contextual; HBCUs prepare students to teach within both the mainstream and Black communities; and that values and practices related to social justice are passed from teacher educator to teacher education student.

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Jerome Quarterman

The purpose of this investigation was twofold: (a) to identify age, gender, educational background, athletic playing experience, teaching experience, coaching experience, and administrative experience of athletic directors (ADs) of historically black colleges and universities {HBCUs), and (b) to compare these data with data collected in previous studies on ADs of predominantly white colleges and universities. A 20-item questionnaire was designed, and copies were mailed to the 80 ADs of the HBCUs listed in the 1988-1989 National Directory of College Athletics. Fifty-five (68.8%) ADs returned the questionnaire; of these, 53 were black males, 1 was a black female, and 1 was a white male. Although the results revealed that ADs of HBCUs possessed many of the characteristics of ADs of predominantly white colleges and universities, there were differences found between the ADs of this study and those of earlier studies: (a) ADs of HBCUs were, on the average, 5 years younger in age, (b) a higher percentage of ADs of HBCUs held master's and doctorate degrees, (c) a higher percentage of ADs of HBCUs currently had teaching and/or coaching responsibilities, and (d) the median salary ranges were lower for ADs of HBCUs than for ADs of predominantly white colleges and universities. As was the case in earlier studies, few ADs held degrees in sport administration,

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Felecia Theune

Despite the tremendous growth in female sports participation opportunities under Title IX, black females have not benefited to the same degree as their white female counterparts. While gender complaints about female athletes still lagging behind males in participatory opportunities, scholarships, facilities and equipment are being discussed, larger structural inequities associated with being black and female remain absent from the Title IX conversation, demonstrating the dual invisibility of black females. Not only is this true at predominantly white institutions, it’s also true at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), academic institutions which have been sources of educational and athletic opportunities for black females long before the passage of Title IX prohibited sex discrimination in any federally funded educational programs and activities.

Malgré l’importante croissance d’opportunités de participation en sport féminin grâce à Title IX, les femmes noires n’ont pas bénéficié autant que les femmes blanches. Alors que les plaintes au sujet des femmes athlètes étaient encore à la traîne des hommes en ce qui concerne les opportunités de participation, les bourses, les installations et l’équipement font l’objet de discussions, les plus grandes injustices structurales associées au fait d’être noire et d’être une femme demeurent absentes de la conversation au sujet de Title IX, démontrant la double invisibilité des femmes noires. Non seulement estce vrai dans les établissements à prédominance blanche, cela est également vrai dans les collèges et universités historiquement noirs, des établissements scolaires qui ont été des sources d’opportunités éducationnelles et athlétiques bien avant que Title IX ne vienne interdire la discrimination en fonction du sexe dans tous les programmes et activités éducationnels financés par le gouvernement fédéral.

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Ju Young Lee

transformed from 1948 to 1980. Chapter 4 ends by pointing out the diminishing competitiveness of football programs at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCU) due to racial-integration endeavors. Chapter 5, co-authored with Dennis Wilson, employs the concept of comparative advantage to analyze