adolescence has been reported ( Nader, Bradley, Houts, McRitchie, & O’Brien, 2008 ), and a similar pattern has also been found in the physical education (PE) context in Hong Kong ( Chow, McKenzie, & Louie, 2008 , 2009 ). School PE is considered a potential venue for promoting a physically active lifestyle
Jing Dong Liu and Pak-Kwong Chung
Cecilia Hoi Sze Chan, Amy Sau Ching Ha and Johan Yau Yin Ng
, the development of FMS is one of the key learning targets of junior primary school children (Key Stage 1: P1-P3) in the Hong Kong PE Curriculum ( Curriculum Development Council, 2013 ). Schools are advised to organize the PE curriculum at Key Stage 1 around fundamental movements to enhance student
Eric Tsz-Chun Poon, John O’Reilly, Sinead Sheridan, Michelle Mingjing Cai and Stephen Heung-Sang Wong
Horse racing is one of the most popular sports worldwide and generates billions of dollars in revenue from both the breeding industry and gambling ( Wilson et al., 2014a ). In Hong Kong, there are more than 600 races each year ( Hong Kong Jockey Club, 2015 ), and three of the world’s best 11 horses
Mee lee Leung
The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of 130 male and female athletes toward female coaches in Hong Kong. Athletes, selected from 14 individual sports, responded to a questionnaire that included 34 attitudes’ items using a 5-point Likert Scale and a question involving preference, in which subjects indicated their preferences toward male or female coaches. An independent t-test analysis (p < .05) revealed that athletes reported a favorable attitude toward female coaches. Chi-Square analysis revealed that athletes preferred a male coach to a female coach.
Stanley Sai-chuen Hui
Promoting regular physical activity has been considered one of the most important aspects of preventive medicine in recent years. This is due to the fact that tremendous evidence has been found about the positive association between increasing physical activity and desirable health effects. Findings have been summarized in a number of review documents; however, most of these reviews emphasize findings retrieved from research conducted in Western countries. Few papers were found to summarize findings in physical activity and health of the Hong Kong Chinese population. Epidemiological studies revealed that there exists distinct diverse health status among different ethnic groups due to culture, beliefs, genetic makeup, health practices, and behaviors in these highly diverse groups. This chapter reviews what is known about the association between physical activity and health in the Chinese population of Hong Kong. Current health issues including coronary heart disease, obesity, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, and so on, that are specific to the Hong Kong situation are reviewed. Moreover, findings in physical activity participation levels of Hong Kong adults and children are introduced. Results indicate that the associations between physical activity and health found in the Chinese population of Hong Kong share similar trends as those reported in Western countries. Three quarters of Hong Kong children and adults are not physically active enough to achieve health benefits. The physical activity level for the Hong Kong Chinese population remains low. The need for promotional and intervention programs on physical activity participation is pressing.
Ann V. Rowlands, Roger G. Eston, Lobo Louie, David K. Ingledew, Kwok K. Tong and Frank H. Fu
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between habitual physical activity and body fatness in Hong Kong Chinese children. Fifty children aged 8–11 yrs wore a uniaxial accelerometer for 7 days to determine physical activity levels. The sum of seven skinfolds was used to estimate body fatness. Activity counts summed over 1 day (299384 – 140427, mean – SD) were similar to activity counts recorded in previous studies. Activity correlated significantly negatively with sum of skinfolds in boys (r = –.50, N = 24, P < .05) but not girls. In conclusion this study supports a negative relationship between physical activity and body fatness in Hong Kong Chinese boys.
Wendy Yajun Huang, Stephen Heung-Sang Wong, Martin Chi-Sang Wong, Cindy Hui-Ping Sit, Raymond Kim-Wai Sum and Gang He
Hong Kong’s 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity (PA) for Children and Youth is the first evidence-based synthesis of various indicators related to individual behaviors that contribute to overall PA levels, settings and sources of influence, and strategies and investments in Hong Kong.
Following a standardized protocol, currently best available data for Hong Kong youth were collated and evaluated by an expert consensus panel on 9 indicators (5 activity behaviors and 4 influences on these behaviors).
Less than half of the children and youth met the recommended PA level. As a result, a D grade was given for Overall PA levels. Organized Sport Participation and Active Transportation received grades of C- and B, respectively. Sedentary Behaviors and School scored a C grade. Community and the Built Environment scored a grade of B. Family Influence received as low a score as Overall PA (D). Active Play and Government were not graded due to incomplete data.
PA levels are low and sedentary behaviors are high for children and youth in Hong Kong. Promising policies exist in schools and features of community and the built environment are favorable. Increasing family support should be emphasized for future PA promotion.
Cindy H.P. Sit, Koenraad J. Lindner and Claudine Sherrill
The purpose was to examine sport participation (excluding physical education classes) of school-aged Chinese children with disabilities attending special schools in Hong Kong. A sample of 237 children, ages 9 to 19, attending 10 special schools in Hong Kong, responded to a sport participation questionnaire in individual interviews. Data were analyzed by gender, two school levels, and five disability types. Results relating to participation frequency and extent indicated that girls were significantly less active than boys. Children with physical disability, visual impairment, and mental disability were less active than children with hearing impairment and maladjustment. Children with different types of disabilities varied in their participation patterns and choices of physical activities as well as their motives for sport participation, nonparticipation, and withdrawal. We concluded that disability type is more related to children’s participation behaviors in sport and physical activities than to gender and school level.
Yi-nam Suen, Ester Cerin and Sin-lung Wu
Regular participation in physical activity (PA) can help reduce the risk of overweight/obesity. Parental practices related to PA are modifiable determinants of preschoolers’ PA that are still not well understood, especially in non-Western cultures. This qualitative explorative study aimed to identify parental practices encouraging or discouraging PA in Hong Kong preschoolers.
Nominal Group Technique (NGT) sessions (n = 45; 6 to 9/group), complemented by a focus group (n = 6) and individual interviews (n = 12), were conducted with primary caregivers (mainly parents) of Hong Kong preschoolers to investigate what parents do to encourage (4 groups) and discourage (2 groups) PA in children. The groups were stratified by low and high neighborhood socioeconomic status. Results: Participants generated 21 and 16 items describing practices encouraging and discouraging preschoolers’ PA, respectively. Parental provision of instrumental, motivational, and conditional support were thought to encourage child’s PA, while parental safety concerns, focus on academic achievement, lack of time and resources, and promotion of sedentary behaviors were thought to discourage child’s PA.
Several parental practices that were deemed to encourage or discourage Hong Kong preschoolers’ PA were identified. These can assist with development of a culturally sensitive scale of PA parenting practices and inform future quantitative research.
Bik C. Chow
The purpose of the research was to study the transitional experiences of elite female athletes who are going through the process of athletic retirement. Using a life history approach, six former and six current athletes in Hong Kong were interviewed. Semi-structured interviews were utilized based on the Schlossberg’s (1981, 1984) transition model. Data were analyzed using typology and constant comparison methods. Diversity and commonality in the experiences of women withdrawing from elite sports competition were found. The life history approach was effective in illustrating the ways in which Hong Kong female athletes feel and think about career end, with a transition from competition to retirement evident as part of career passing. Content analysis of interviews revealed several salient themes related to sports retirement. Key distinctions across projected and experienced retirement were associated with a woman’s being an immigrant athlete, entering early into sport, and pursuing an education. Athlete status also affected transition to retirement and lifestyle after an elite sports career.