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Rainer Martens

because sport is organized at many different levels by many organizations, each of whom is protective of its domain. NASPSPA and Human Kinetics In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA) emerged to share papers at annual

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jsep Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 0895-2779 1543-2904 1993 15 s1 10.1123/jsep.1993.15.issue-s1 Research 10.1123/jsep.15.s1.s1 Human Kinetics Lecture 10.1123/jsep.15.s1.s97 Research 10.1123/jsep.15.s1.s1 Human Kinetics Lecture 10.1123/jsep.15.s1.s97

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Douglas E. Martin and Richard A. Dodder

© 1993 Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc.

In the early 1970s Spreitzer and Snyder developed the Psychosocial Functions of Sport Scale to assess people’s perceptions of the importance of sport, and they administered this instrument to a sample of Toledo, Ohio, residents. This study reassesses the reliability and construct validity of the scale and examines college students’ perceptions of the importance of sport. Factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha indicate that Spreitzer and Snyder’s scale meets the criteria of reliability and construct validity. An item analysis indicates that most subjects believe sport to be important for individuals and society. Subjects’ responses to 12 of the 15 items are strikingly similar to the response distribution reported by Spreitzer and Snyder; however, there are notable differences on three of the items, suggesting that the present sample did not view sport as an institution that develops good citizens, promotes fair play, or alleviates drug problems in society.

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George H. Sage

This paper examines the linkages between physical education, sociology, and sociology of sport in North America. Physical education and sociology in North America have had numerous mutual ties since the beginnings of both fields. In the first section of the paper, I describe the rise of sociology and physical education in North America, emphasizing the linkages that initially existed between physical education and sociology, and then the separation that transpired between the disciplines. The second section examines the connections between social theory and physical education before the sociology of sport was formally developed. The final section details the rise of sociology of sport, with the main focus on the role of physical educators (a.k.a. sociocultural kinesiologists, sport studies scholars, human kinetics scholars) in the development of sociology of sport. This section concludes with a discussion of the linkages of social theory, critical pedagogy in physical education, and sport sociology in physical education.

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jsep Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 0895-2779 1543-2904 2000 22 s1 10.1123/jsep.2000.22.issue-s1 Research 10.1123/jsep.22.s1.s1 10.1123/jsep.22.s1.s121 Human Kinetics Lecture 10.1123/jsep.22.s1.s122 Research 10.1123/jsep.22.s1.s1 10.1123/jsep.22.s1.s121 Human Kinetics Lecture 10.1123/jsep

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Marybell Avery and Angela Lumpkin

This study surveyed 2559 students enrolled in the physical education program at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill to determine which physical education objectives students considered to be most and least important and to assess if there were any differences based on gender and class in the responses. Descriptive statistics revealed that having fun, getting regular exercise, and keeping in good health and physical condition were most important. Providing vocational preparation, learning about human kinetics and exercise science, developing emotional stability, and developing self-realization were rated least important. Results of a principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation revealed that the 24 participation motives loaded on four factors: (a) self-worth, (b) physiological parameters, (c) social affiliation, and (d) lifetime use. ANOVAs on each factor revealed significant effects for class and gender on all the factors except the lifetime use factor. These findings extend those of Soudan and Everett (1981) and provide important information relative to class and gender as mediators of participation motives of students involved in a physical education activity program.

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jsep Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 0895-2779 1543-2904 1995 17 s1 10.1123/jsep.1995.17.issue-s1 1995 NASPSPA Conference Abstracts 10.1123/jsep.17.s1.s1 Free Communications 10.1123/jsep.17.s1.s18 Human Kinetics Lecture 10.1123/jsep.17.s1.s116 1995 NASPSPA Conference Abstracts 10.1123/jsep

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jsep Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 0895-2779 1543-2904 1996 18 s1 10.1123/jsep.1996.18.issue-s1 1996 NASPSPA Conference Abstracts 10.1123/jsep.18.s1.s1 Research 10.1123/jsep.18.s1.s8 Free Communications 10.1123/jsep.18.s1.s9 Human Kinetics Lecture 10.1123/jsep.18.s1.s95 1996 NASPSPA