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Samuel N. Cheuvront and Robert W. Kenefick

, the characterization of SL, SR, and required drinking among runners in this study indicate wide individual variability that warrants personalized hydration practices, particularly when running is prolonged and performance is important. This study may serve as a useful guidepost for sports dietitians

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Fernando S. Lobo, Andreia C.C. Queiroz, Natan D. Silva Junior, Fabio L. Medina, Luiz A.R. Costa, Tais Tinucci, and Claudia L.M. Forjaz

after exercise abolished PEH. Endo et al 10 showed that oral water intake during exercise also prevented PEH. Thus, these results suggest that intentional hydration may not be recommended when PEH is desirable. However, these studies have employed intravenous infusion 9 or have evaluated PEH in the

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Dawn M. Emerson, Toni M. Torres-McGehee, Susan W. Yeargin, Kyle Dolan, and Kelcey K. deWeber

-intensity activity 5 over a short time (∼60 min practice) can prevent ice hockey players from consuming enough fluids to match sweat loss, 2 , 4 resulting in dehydration during activity. Other factors, such as a blunted thirst response due to the cool environment 6 and travel, 7 can also impact hydration. The

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Dawn M. Emerson, Toni M. Torres-McGehee, Susan W. Yeargin, Kyle Dolan, and Kelcey K. deWeber

Sports Medicine’s fluid replacement statement, 2 discusses the effects caffeine and alcohol can have on hydration. Alcohol inhibits antidiuretic hormone (ADH), leading to increased urine production and hypohydration. 3 Alcohol use in college athletes is higher than the general student population and

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Dale R. Wagner and James D. Cotter

, it is not always practical or realistic to have clients adhere to strict hydration guidelines, particularly if measuring in field settings. Furthermore, most technicians do not take the time or have the resources to assess hydration status before assessing body composition. In a survey of

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Emily C. Borden, William J. Kraemer, Bryant J. Walrod, Emily M. Post, Lydia K. Caldwell, Matthew K. Beeler, William H. DuPont, John Paul Anders, Emily R. Martini, Jeff S. Volek, and Carl M. Maresh

NCAA has identified a urine-specific gravity (USG) value of less than or equal to 1.020 g/cm 3 as an indicator of proper hydration. Any value that is greater than 1.020 g/cm 3 is considered “failed,” and the wrestler must be retested no sooner than 24 hours after the initial assessment. USG has been

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Julian A. Owen, Matthew B. Fortes, Saeed Ur Rahman, Mahdi Jibani, Neil P. Walsh, and Samuel J. Oliver

when people are ill; take medications (e.g., diuretics); are immersed in water; or exposed to cold and/or hypoxia ( Cheuvront & Kenefick, 2014 ; Cotter et al., 2014 ). Whether hydration markers identify ID or ED is likely to depend on the relationship between the marker and the distinct physiological

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Lawrence E. Armstrong, Carl M. Maresh, John W. Castellani, Michael F. Bergeron, Robert W. Kenefick, Kent E. LaGasse, and Deborah Riebe

Athletes and researchers could benefit from a simple and universally accepted technique to determine whether humans are well-hydrated, euhydrated, or hypohydrated. Two laboratory studies (A, B) and one field study (C) were conducted to determine if urine color (Ucol) indicates hydration status accurately and to clarify the interchangeability of Ucol, urine osmolality (Uosm), and urine specific gravity (Usg) in research. Ucol, Uosm, and Usg were not significantly correlated with plasma osmolality, plasma sodium, or hemato-crit. This suggested that these hematologic measurements are not as sensitive to mild hypohydration (between days) as the selected urinary indices are. When the data from A, B, and C were combined, Ucol was strongly correlated with Uhg and U„sm. It was concluded that (a) Ucol may be used in athletic/industrial settings or field studies, where close estimates of Usg or Uosm are acceptable, but should not be utilized in laboratories where greater precision and accuracy are required, and (b) Uosm and Usg may be used interchangeably to determine hydration status.

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Leslie Tufano, Jon Hochstetler, Timothy Seminerio, and Rebecca M. Lopez

rise in blood viscosity and an increase in poor solubility, leading to the “logjam” effect and rhabdomyolysis. 10 To date, we are unaware of any literature that has sought to synthesize the evidence related to hematocrit levels and hydration status in individuals with SCT when exercising. Therefore

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Ronald J. Maughan and Susan M. Shirreffs

Athletes are encouraged to begin exercise well hydrated and to consume sufficient amounts of appropriate fluids during exercise to limit water and salt deficits. Available evidence suggests that many athletes begin exercise already dehydrated to some degree, and although most fail to drink enough to match sweat losses, some drink too much and a few develop hyponatremia. Some simple advice can help athletes assess their hydration status and develop a personalized hydration strategy that takes account of exercise, environment, and individual needs. Preexercise hydration status can be assessed from urine frequency and volume, with additional information from urine color, specific gravity, or osmolality. Change in hydration during exercise can be estimated from the change in body mass that occurs during a bout of exercise. Sweat rate can be estimated if fluid intake and urinary losses are also measured. Sweat salt losses can be determined by collection and analysis of sweat samples, but athletes losing large amounts of salt are likely to be aware of the taste of salt in sweat and the development of salt crusts on skin and clothing where sweat has evaporated. An appropriate drinking strategy will take account of preexercise hydration status and of fluid, electrolyte, and substrate needs before, during, and after a period of exercise. Strategies will vary greatly between individuals and will also be influenced by environmental conditions, competition regulations, and other factors.