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Ken Pitetti, Ruth Ann Miller, and Michael Loovis

Children and adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) exhibit a mixture of cognitive, motor, and psychosocial limitation. Identifying specific inadequacies in motor proficiency in youth with ID would improve therapeutic management to enhance functional capacity and health-related physical activity. The purpose of this study was to initiate descriptive data collection of gross motor skills of youth with ID and compare those skills with competency norms. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2) was used to measure 6 items for balance (BAL), 5 items for upper limb coordination (ULC), and 6 items for bilateral coordination (BLC) of 123 males (ages 8–18) with ID but without Down syndrome. The authors performed 2,840 assessments (10–32 for each item); 944, 985, and 913 for BAL, ULC, and BLC, respectively. Mean scores for all age groups for BAL, ULC, and BLC were consistently below BOT-2 criteria. Overall motor skills of males with ID are below the competence expected for children and adolescents without disabilities.

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Yonghwan Chang, Daniel L. Wann, and Yuhei Inoue

’ identification with a specific team or team identification (team ID). In other words, those who have a stronger team ID (i.e., individuals perceive themselves as fans of the team and view the team as a representation of themselves; Branscombe & Wann, 1992 ) are more likely to experience the state of being in

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Mark A. Sarzynski, Joey C. Eisenmann, Gregory J. Welk, Jared Tucker, Kim Glenn, Max Rothschild, and Kate Heelan

The present study examined the association between the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism, physical activity, and resting blood pressure (BP) in a sample of 132 children (48.4% female). Children attaining 60 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) possessed lower % body fat (29% vs 24%, p < .05). Resting BP did not significantly differ between genotypes. Furthermore, partial correlations between MVPA and BP were low and did not vary by ACE genotype. Thus, the ACE I/D genotype is not associated with BP and does not modify the relationship between physical activity and BP in this sample of children.

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Nell Faucette, Peg Nugent, James F. Sallis, and Thomas L. McKenzie

Classroom teachers’ responses to a 2-year professional development program are presented. Sixteen 4th- and 5th-grade teachers involved in Project SPARK completed structured interviews, questionnaires, and written evaluations of program sessions. Although in Year 1 more than half of the teachers expressed concerns about schedules and equipment management, results indicated that the program helped increase their self-confidence when teaching physical education. Participants believed that students benefitted from their enhanced knowledge and instructional behaviors. Program components most appreciated included: the input received and responsiveness of the design team; opportunities to collaborate, discuss concerns, and problem-solve with each other and the facilitators; and having on-site and large-group-session modeling. Results indicated that the teachers were less enthusiastic about a self-management curriculum due to its behavioral emphasis, yet supported the assertion that an ongoing, supportive professional development program can substantially improve classroom teachers’ physical education programs.

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Jian Xu, Poram Choi, Robert W. Motl, and Stamatis Agiovlasitis

Intellectual disability (ID) is a condition characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior ( Schalock, Verdugo, & Gomez, 2011 ). The population prevalence of ID is about 0.05–1.55% ( McKenzie, Milton, Smith, & Ouellette-Kuntz, 2016 ). Adults with ID have

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Jesse A. Goodrich, Dillon J. Frisco, Sewan Kim, Karin VanBaak, Marissa Holliday, Miguel Rueda, Sourav Poddar, and William C. Byrnes

Iron is an essential mineral and is important for optimal health and performance. An inability to maintain iron stores can lead to iron deficiency (ID), which is associated with negative health and performance outcomes. ID impairs heme synthesis and can result in lower hemoglobin levels which can

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Julian A. Owen, Matthew B. Fortes, Saeed Ur Rahman, Mahdi Jibani, Neil P. Walsh, and Samuel J. Oliver

referred to as intracellular dehydration (ID) and is characterized by an increased plasma osmolality (hyperosmolality). In contrast, extracellular dehydration (ED) is caused by iso-osmotic fluid loss and is characterized by volume depletion (hypovolemia) and the absence of hyperosmolality. ED often occurs

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Ken Pitetti, Ruth Ann Miller, and E. Michael Loovis

overweight and obesity ( Cairney, Hay, Faught, & Hawes, 2005 ). Pitetti, Miller, and Loovis ( 2017 ) recently assessed the gross motor proficiency of male children and adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) but without Down syndrome (DS) in areas of coordination and using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test

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Ryan Mahaffey, Megan Le Warne, Stewart C. Morrison, Wendy I. Drechsler, and Nicola Theis

pediatric studies to determine muscle strength. 4 ID assessment has been considered the gold or reference standard for measuring muscle strength due to its superior reliability compared with HHD. 1 Despite the expense and relative complexity, the use of IDs has become popular in sports, research, and

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Fabio Bertapelli, Ken Pitetti, Ruth A. Miller, Adam Jaeger, Michael Loovis, Wilson D. do Amaral-Junior, Marcos M. de Barros-Filho, and Gil Guerra-Junior

.g., perceived competence and executive function) ( Bremer & Cairney, 2018 ) and has an inverse relationship to body weight and body mass index (BMI; Lopes, Maia, Rodrigues, & Malina, 2012 ; Lubans, Morgan, Cliff, Barnett, & Okely, 2010 ). Research has established that youth (6–21 years) with intellectual disability (ID