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Florence Lebrun, Áine MacNamara, Dave Collins, and Sheelagh Rodgers

the coping strategies used by each participant, interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was chosen to examine each narrative in detail. Using semi-structured interviews, data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, a graphic time line reporting key events related to their mental

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Elanor E. Cormack and Jamie Gillman

interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). IPA is an appropriate approach for this research because it focuses on the participants’ lived experiences and the sense that they have made of those experiences ( Smith, 2011 ). IPA differs from other qualitative methods in several ways. First, it values how the

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James D. LeCheminant, Larry A. Tucker, Bruce W. Bailey, and Travis Peterson


To determine objectively measured intensity of physical activity (iPA) and its relationship to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and the LDL/HDL ratio in women.


Two hundred seventy-two women (40.1 y) wore CSA-MTI model 7164 accelerometers to index intensity and volume of physical activity for 7 d. Blood lipids were measured at a certified laboratory.


HDL-C was 52.1 ± 10.1, 52.2 ± 9.7, and 56.1 ± 11.1 mg/dL for the low, medium, and high intensity groups (P = 0.040), LDL-C differences were not significant (P = 0.23). LDL/HDL differences were observed (P = 0.030) with specific differences between the low and high iPA groups (P = 0.006). For HDL-C and LDL/HDL, significant relationships remained with control of dietary fat and age but not body fat percentage or volume of activity.


High iPA had higher HDL-C levels and lower LDL/HDL ratios than low and medium iPA. The iPA was predictive of HDL-C partly due to its strong association with volume of activity and body fat percentage.

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Jack A. G. Marlow and Mark Uphill

This study explored the characteristics, contextual factors and consequences of counterfactual thoughts in seven elite athletes using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Counterfactuals were experienced regularly with self-directed and upward counterfactuals (cognitions about how things could be better) being most frequent. These upward counterfactuals typically occurred following performance that was below participants’ goals and expectations. These thoughts were perceived by participants to have a negative affect initially, and that they then led to facilitative behavioral consequences around learning and development. Some elements of counterfactual thinking could be used as a useful reflective tool to encourage elite athletes to problem solve and motivate cognitive, emotional and behavioral change to enhance future performance.

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Emily A. Martin, Stacy Winter, and Tim Holder

Observation provides applied sport psychologists with a direct assessment of client behavior within the sporting environment. Despite the unique properties and the insightful information that observation allows, it has received limited literary attention within the applied sport psychology domain. The current study aimed to explore and further understand the observation practices of current trainee practitioners. All participants were enrolled on a training program toward becoming either a chartered psychologist (BPS) or an accredited sport and exercise scientist (BASES). In total, five focus groups were conducted and analyzed using an interpretative phenomenological approach (IPA; Smith, 1996). Four superordinate themes emerged: value of observation, type of observation, challenges of observation, and suggestions for observation training. Results demonstrate the increased value that observation brings to effective service delivery and intervention. Specifically, informal observation is commended for its propensity to build greater contextual intelligence and to develop stronger client relationships.

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Hannah Cooper and Stacy Winter

Disordered eating is a psychological ailment that befalls many athletes and can persist into retirement. Links have been established between disordered eating and societal and sport-specific pressures; however, little research has focused on the perspective of retired athletes in a time-based sport. The purpose of the current research was to explore the conceptualization of disordered eating in relation to swimming participation, how retirement affects eating patterns, and ways to mitigate disordered eating. Following IPA methodological guidelines, a homogeneous sample of retired swimmers (N = 6) was chosen for semistructured, participant-driven interviews determined by scores on a disordered-eating questionnaire. Three superordinate themes were revealed: (1) pressures unique to swimming, (2) transition to eating pattern awareness, and (3) maintaining ideal eating patterns in retirement. The results revealed a combination of novel findings and expansion of previous data on disordered eating. Suggestions for applications of current findings and for future research are also discussed.

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Steve M. Smith, Stewart T. Cotterill, and Hazel Brown

performance in the practice environment, and it was decided to use the interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) approach as developed by Smith ( 2016 ) and Smith, Flowers, and Larkin, ( 2013 ). This study focused on participants’ perceptions of experiences and their meaning, which could draw out the

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Justin A. Haegele, Takahiro Sato, Xihe Zhu, and T. Nicole Kirk

participants’ experiences with paraeducator support during physical education, this study adopted an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) approach to guide data collection, analysis, and interpretation ( Smith, Flowers, & Larkin, 2009 ). IPA is a qualitative approach that is concerned with examining

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Fionnuala B. Barnes, David Fletcher, and Kacey C. Neely

growth identified by Maercker and Zoellner ( 2004 ) and Howells and Fletcher ( 2016 ). Commonly, researchers in elite sport have used qualitative methods to explore how individuals understand growth and or the experience of stressors. Through interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) with elite

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Katherine Holland, Justin A. Haegele, and Xihe Zhu

individuals with visual impairments with learning to run and (b) what meaning do individuals with visual impairments make from their running experiences? Method To examine the experiences of individuals with visual impairments with learning to run in PE, an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was