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Rosanna Gilderthorp, Jan Burns, and Fergal Jones

athletes with ID, where the classification of different levels of impairment is fundamental to competition. Within International Paralympic Committee (IPC) competition “classes” are defined which group similar levels of severity of impairment together. This is to “ensure that an athlete’s impairment is

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Danny Christiansen, Casper B.L. Olsen, Frederik Kehler, Anders P. Hansen, Søren Jessen, Peter M. Christensen, and Jens Bangsbo

legal oral supplementation 1 are known to influence performance. Thus, small changes in the athlete’s preparation can have a huge impact on the athlete’s chances of a medal. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in the hours before competition

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Christian P. Cheung, Joshua T. Slysz, and Jamie F. Burr

Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is an experimental technique that involves intermittent periods of complete blood flow occlusion and reperfusion of a limb. 1 Whether applied locally or remotely, IPC has been shown to have cardioprotective effects against ischemic–reperfusion injury. 1 , 2 Despite

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Kyle M.A. Thompson, Alanna K. Whinton, Shane Ferth, Lawrence L. Spriet, and Jamie F. Burr

Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) was originally developed to reduce cell necrosis during prolonged periods of ischemia. 1 In addition to the cytoprotective effects of IPC, the stimuli from cyclical periods of localized ischemia, which is similar to the periods of vascular occlusion caused by maximal

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Scott Cocking, Mathew G. Wilson, David Nichols, N. Timothy Cable, Daniel J. Green, Dick H. J. Thijssen, and Helen Jones

Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) refers to the phenomenon whereby 3 or 4 brief periods of ischemia, followed by tissue reperfusion, confer subsequent tissue protection against ischemic insult. 1 IPC can be applied remotely by placing a blood-pressure cuff around a limb and inflating to suprasystolic

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Hannah L. Stedge and Kirk Armstrong

of intensive exercise, such as endurance running or triathlon competition. Athletes attempt to speed their recovery following endurance events in various ways, one of which is through compression. Dynamic compression consists of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) devices, such as the NormaTec

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Mathias T. Vangsoe, Jonas K. Nielsen, and Carl D. Paton

-up strategies aimed at enhancing high-intensity performance but reducing potential fatigue have been reported in the literature. Specialist warm-up strategies that include ischemic preconditioning (IPC) procedures and postactivation potentiation (PAP) efforts have been reported to improve performance

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Hawley Chase Almstedt and Zakkoyya H. Lewis

Context:

Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) is a common therapeutic modality used to reduce swelling after trauma and prevent thrombosis due to postsurgical immobilization. Limited evidence suggests that IPC may decrease the time needed to rehabilitate skeletal fractures and increase bone remodeling.

Objective:

To establish feasibility and explore the novel use of a common therapeutic modality, IPC, on bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip of noninjured volunteers.

Design:

Within-subjects intervention.

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Participants:

Noninjured participants (3 male, 6 female) completed IPC treatment on 1 leg 1 h/d, 5 d/wk for 10 wk. Pressure was set to 60 mm Hg when using the PresSsion and Flowtron Hydroven compression units.

Main Outcome Measures:

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess BMD of the hip in treated and nontreated legs before and after the intervention. Anthropometrics, regular physical activity, and nutrient intake were also assessed.

Results:

The average number of completed intervention sessions was 43.4 (± 3.8) at an average duration of 9.6 (± 0.8) wk. Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated a significant time-by-treatment effect at the femoral neck (P = .023), trochanter (P = .027), and total hip (P = .008). On average, the treated hip increased 0.5–1.0%, while the nontreated hip displayed a 0.7–1.9% decrease, depending on the bone site.

Conclusion:

Results of this exploratory investigation suggest that IPC is a therapeutic modality that is safe and feasible for further investigation on its novel use in optimizing bone health.

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Amadeo F. Salvador, Rafael A. De Aguiar, Felipe D. Lisbôa, Kayo L. Pereira, Rogério S. de O. Cruz, and Fabrizio Caputo

Although the amount of evidence demonstrating the beneficial effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on exercise performance is increasing, conclusions about its efficacy cannot yet be drawn. Therefore, the purposes of this review were to determine the effect of IPC on exercise performance and identify the effects of different IPC procedures, exercise types, and subject characteristics on exercise performance. The analysis comprised 19 relevant studies from 2000 to 2015, 15 of which were included in the meta-analyses. Effect sizes (ES) were calculated as the standardized mean difference. Overall, IPC had a small beneficial effect on exercise performance (ES = 0.43; 90% confidence interval [CI], 0.28 to 0.51). The largest ES were found for aerobic (ES = 0.51; 90% CI, 0.35 to 0.67) and anaerobic (ES = 0.23; 90% CI, -0.12 to 0.58) exercise. In contrast, an unclear effect was observed in power and sprint performance (ES = 0.16; 90% CI, –0.20 to 0.52). In conclusion, IPC can effectively enhance aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance.

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Neil Gibson, James White, Mhari Neish, and Andrew Murray

Purpose:

The study aimed to assess whether exposure to ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in a trained population would affect land-based maximal sprinting performance over 30 m.

Methods:

Twenty-five well-trained participants regularly involved in invasion-type team-sport events were recruited to take part in a randomized crossover study design. Participants underwent both an IPC and a placebo treatment involving 3 periods of 5-min occlusion applied unilaterally (3 × 5-min occlusion to each leg) at either 220 mmHg or 50 mmHg, respectively. Each period of occlusion was followed by 5 min of reperfusion. After treatment, 3 maximal sprints over a distance of 30 m were undertaken from a standing start interspersed with 1-min recovery. Split times were recorded at 10, 20, and 30 m.

Results:

No significant effects of the IPC treatment were observed on sprint speed (P < .05) at any of the split timings; however, a small and negative effect was observed in female participants. Calculated effect sizes of the treatment were found to be trivial (<0.2).

Conclusions:

Results from the current study suggest there to be no benefit to team-sport players in using IPC as a means of enhancing sprint performance over a distance of 30 m. While IPC has been shown to be beneficial to sprint activities in other sports such as swimming, further research is required to elucidate whether this is the case over distances associated with land-based events in track and field or in events reliant on repeated-sprint ability.