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Sara Santarossa, Paige Coyne, Sarah J. Woodruff, and Craig G. Greenham

. Instagram is a social networking site that has surged in popularity recently. Launched in 2010, within 2 months the Instagram community grew to 1 million users and reached 100 million users by 2013 ( “Our story”, 2014 ). In 2016, the popular photo-sharing social networking site reached a milestone 500

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Kelly Fraidenburg and Laura Backstrom

-centric audience ” (emphasis added) ( Nagle, 2012 ). Although the audiences for ESPN and espnW Instagram accounts are presumed to differ by gender, we know little about whether this difference affects the content that each account posts about sportswomen. In this paper, we analyze 370 posts featuring sportswomen

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Samuel López-Carril and Christos Anagnostopoulos

powerful abilities that PTSOs possess in the communities where they exist and operate. The importance of disclosing these actions, however, should not be understated. In this regard, social media have emerged as a wide range of tools (YouTube, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, etc.) that facilitate

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Dustin A. Hahn

Instagram surpassed a billion active monthly users in the summer of 2018, with a growth rate around 5% per quarter ( Constine, 2018 ). In contrast, broadcast ratings have steadily declined in popular sport leagues. Market shares of Major League Baseball’s World Series dropped from 26 in 2001 to 14

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Jihyeon Lee and Laura Azzarito

fitness ( Sirna, 2014 ). Thus, the purpose of this participatory visual study was to explore how Instagram, a visual-based social media platform, served as a public pedagogical space in which RIM girls co-constructed, shared, and expressed their (dis)engagement in physical culture. The primary researcher

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Daniel Weimar, Brian P. Soebbing, and Pamela Wicker

outcomes on the change rate of followers across professional football leagues. Put differently, the present research estimates the social media value of game outcomes using big social media data. These data stem from three social media platforms (i.e., Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram) and were gathered

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Brandi Watkins and Jason W. Lee

This case study examined how a large university in the southern U.S. incorporated branding strategies into its social-media content. Specifically, the strategies for using text-based social media (Twitter) and visual-based social media (Instagram) to communicate brand identity through brand associations and brand personality were investigated. To do this, the authors conducted a 2-part study. The first, a content analysis of social-media content, revealed how the athletic department communicated the football team’s brand identity through brand associations and brand personality. Second, a survey assessed the perceived brand personality of the football program through social-media content to determine external perceptions of the team. Results support the use of Instagram as a branding strategy. Instagram was used more than Twitter to communicate brand associations and brand-personality cues, while survey results indicated that respondents exposed to Instagram content reported higher perceptions of brand personality than those exposed to Twitter content.

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Lillian Feder

professional athletes who have regularly used social media platforms and features such as TikTok and Instagram LIVE from their homes. In an effort to keep himself and his fans entertained and engaged with positive content while quarantined, National Basketball Association (NBA) star Serge Ibaka has created an

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Marion E. Hambrick and Per G. Svensson

Sport organizations can use social media to build relationships with current and potential stakeholders. These opportunities are pertinent for smaller niche and sport-for-development-and-peace (SDP) organizations, which rarely receive the same media and consumer attention as their larger, more mainstream counterparts. This study examined the role of social media with 1 SDP organization and used qualitative data collection and analysis to explore what social-media platforms the staff members selected, how they used these platforms, and what benefits and challenges they faced with this use. Their identified social-media activities were 3-fold: disseminating news, promoting events, and educating stakeholders. Some hurdles arose with this use, in particular attempting to engage readers in conversations and ensuring that the posted messages uniformly relayed organizational goals. SDP and other organizations can use social media to achieve communication objectives but should recognize the potential challenges associated with these efforts.

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Yann Abdourazakou, Xuefei (Nancy) Deng, and Gashaw Abeza

The popularity and acceptance of social media platforms (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, and Instagram) by athletes, coaches, managers, teams, leagues, fans, events, and sport governing bodies is widespread today ( Abeza, O’Reilly, Finch, Séguin, & Nadeau, 2020 ). The expansive reach of social