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Sarah C. Moudy, Neale A. Tillin, Amy R. Sibley, and Siobhán Strike

Previous research on individuals with a transtibial amputation (ITTAs) has suggested that the mechanics of the prosthetic limb may influence the intact limb mechanics, and subsequently the magnitude and rate of load experienced in walking, 1 , 2 running, 3 , 4 and start–stop tasks. 5 This is

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Zandrie Hofman, Rolf Smeets, George Verlaan, Richard v.d. Lugt, and Peter A. Verstappen

In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, we investigated the effect of 8 weeks of supplementation with bovine colostrum (Intact™) on body composition and exercise performance (5 × 10-m sprint, vertical jump, shuttle-run test, and suicide test). Seventeen female and 18 male elite field hockey players, including players from the Dutch national team, received either 60 g of colostrum or whey protein daily. The 5 × 10-m sprint test performance improved significantly (p = .023) more in the colostrum group [0.64±0.09 s (mean ± SEM)] compared to the whey group (0.33±0.09 s). The vertical jump performance improved more in the colostrum group (2.1 ± 0.73 cm) compared to the whey group (0.32 ± 0.82 cm). However, this was not statistically significant (p = .119). There were also no significant differences in changes in body composition and endurance tests between the 2 groups. It is concluded that in elite field hockey players, colostrum supplementation improves sprint performance better than whey. However, there were no differences with regard to body composition or endurance performance.

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Andrej Olenšek, Zlatko Matjačić, and Tadej Bajd

When studying pathological gait it is important to correctly identify primary gait anomalies originating from damage to the central nervous and musculoskeletal system and separate them from compensatory changes of gait pattern, which is often challenging due to the lack of knowledge related to biomechanics of pathological gait. A mechanical system consisting of specially designed trousers, special shoe arrangement, and elastic ropes attached to selected locations on the trousers and shoes is proposed to allow emulation of muscle contractures of soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemius (GAS) muscles and both SOL-GAS. The main objective of this study was to evaluate and compare gait variability as recorded in normal gait and when being constrained with the proposed system. Six neurologically and orthopedically intact volunteers walked along a 7-m walkway while gait kinematics and kinetics were recorded using VICON motion analysis system and two AMTI forceplates. Statistical analysis of coefficient of variation of kinematics and kinetics as recorded in normal walking and during the most constrained SOL-GAS condition showed comparable gait variability. Inspection of resulting group averaged gait patterns revealed considerable resemblance to a selected clinical example of spastic diplegia, indicating that the proposed mechanical system potentially represents a novel method for studying emulated pathological gait arising from artificially induced muscle contractures in neurologically intact individuals.

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Paul M. Wright and Suzanne Burton

Underserved youth are at risk for numerous threats to their physical and psychological well-being. To navigate the challenges they face, they need a variety of positive life skills. This study systematically explored the implementation and short-term outcomes of a responsibility-based physical activity program that was integrated into an intact high school physical education class. Qualitative methods, drawing on multiple data sources, were used to evaluate a 20-lesson teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) program. Participants were 23 African American students in an urban high school. Five themes characterized the program: (a) establishing a relevant curriculum, (b) navigating barriers, (c) practicing life skills, (d) seeing the potential for transfer, and (e) creating a valued program. Findings extend the empirical literature related to TPSR and, more generally, physical activity programs designed to promote life skills. Implications for practitioners are discussed.

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George Graham, Patricia Soares, and Wilma Harrington

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Gabriella A.M. Ten Have, Marielle P.K.J. Engelen, Yvette C. Luiking, and Nicolaas E.P. Deutz

The small intestine acts as interface and regulator between the gut lumen and the rest of the body and controls the degree and rate of transport of amino acids coming from dietary protein via the portal vein to the liver and the systemic circulation. To measure protein absorption, kinetics multicatheter animal (pig) models in combination with amino acid tracer technology are available. Dietary factors infuence the absorption rates from the lumen to the gut, metabolism of dietary component in the gut, and the release of amino acids to the portal circulation from digested protein. In a balanced-protein meal, the gut dietary amino acid utilization (30–50%) for gut protein synthesis will result in a labile protein pool in the gut that can be benefcial during the postabsorptive state. To enhance gut retention, amount and quality of protein and the presence of carbohydrate are major factors. Besides this the use of a slowly digestible protein or the presence of fber in the meal can increase retention further. During the absorption of low-quality protein meals, fewer amino acids are utilized by the gut, resulting in higher amounts of amino acid release to the portal circulation. Malnutrition or starvation, protein depletion, defciencies of specifc nutrients, or illness such as sepsis all inhibit the growth and change protein turnover of the intestinal mucosa and therefore affect absorption kinetics. Therefore, the kind of protein meal that has the most optimal absorption kinetics (the most benefcial) for gut and for the rest of the body depends on these (patho)physiological circumstances. Despite the absence of different absorption kinetics between protein, peptides, and amino acids, they could be benefcial in specifc circumstances.

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Trygve B. Broch

This article explores gendered sport communication in Norway. The data highlight Norwegian TV2’s live game commentaries of the 2009 women’s handball world championships, as well as live and studio commentary and journalistic reports concerning the Norwegian national women’s handball team from 2009 to 2013. The narrative-analytic approach is structural-hermeneutic and concerned with processes of meaning making. Instead of reading off gender/macrostructure in data, this project maps the semiotic culture structure of mediated women’s handball and shows how gendered meaning is creatively used to inform understandings of female handballers’ situated practices. The analysis first outlines the cultural binaries that constrain the media presentations of Norwegian women’s handball, then scrutinizes how gendered conceptions of sport and female athletes are used to understand this binary culture structure. Analytically revealed is a staging of Norwegian women’s handball that portrays successful and powerful female bodies’ contextual conduct. Norwegian women handballers are playing the aggressive and physically violent game in what is analyzed as a gender-appropriate manner.

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Atsushi Makimoto, Yoko Sano, Satoru Hashizume, Akihiko Murai, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Hiroshi Takemura, and Hiroaki Hobara

intact limbs during sprinting to compensate for the lack of biological knee and ankle function. Further, Burkett et al 9 reported interlimb asymmetry in kinetic variables during running in 4 transfemoral athletes. However, participants in their study used nonrunning-specific prostheses, and 2

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Seung-uk Ko, Gerald J. Jerome, Eleanor M. Simonsick, and Luigi Ferrucci

who appear functionally intact, but who have gait patterns or limitations associated with risk of falling and balance problems. Future investigations should examine the predictive validity of obstacle crossing related to falls and the role of fatigue on obstacle-crossing performance. Interventions are

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Scott A. Graupensperger, Alex J. Benson, and M. Blair Evans

fulfilled the requirements to be compensated. In total, two athletes decided to not participate. The final sample included 379 NCAA student-athletes ( M age  =19.70, SD  = 1.30, 44% male) from 23 intact division II and III sport teams ( k  = 3 volleyball, k  = 6 soccer, k  = 4 lacrosse, k  = 3 field