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Leilani Madrigal and Diane L. Gill

Using the Integrated Model of Response to Sport Injury as a theoretical framework, athletes’ psychological strengths and emotional responses were explored throughout the injury process using a case study approach. Four Division I athletes completed measures of mental toughness, hardiness, and optimism before their season (time 1), once they became injured (time 2), midway through rehabilitation (time 3), and when they were cleared to participate (time 4). Coping behavior, psychological response, and rehabilitation adherence were recorded at time 2–time 4, while recovering. In addition, interviews were conducted after time 4. Mental toughness, hardiness, and optimism varied over time and across cases, with broad individual differences in response to injury. Athletes experienced a loss of athletic identity combined with feelings of guilt and helplessness over the initial stages of injury, but positive experiences were also found. All cases also reported playing through injury. Understanding the psychological strengths and responses of athletes can help professionals work with injured athletes.

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Sinéad O’Keeffe, Niamh Ní Chéilleachair and Siobhán O’Connor

necessity for holistic recovery from injury. According to the integrated model of response to sport injury, the psychological reaction to injury is dependent upon situational and personal factors, along with differing behavioral and emotional responses to an injury situation. 17 Fear avoidance, defined as

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

and postinjury outcomes (e.g., mood disturbance) have not sought to understand the processes and factors underpinning such relationships. Using two underpinning models (the integrated model of response to sport injury and the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat states), the purpose of this

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Courtney W. Hess, Stacy L. Gnacinski and Barbara B. Meyer

began with research aimed at understanding both the psychosocial antecedents (i.e., stress-injury model, Andersen & Williams, 1988 ) and the consequences of injury (i.e., cognitive-appraisal model, Wiese & Weiss, 1987 ). The Integrated Model of Response to Sport Injury Expanding the work of Wiese and

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Mia Beck Lichtenstein, Claire Gudex, Kjeld Andersen, Anders Bo Bojesen and Uffe Jørgensen

; 127 ( 4 ): 174 – 180 . PubMed ID: 17711063 doi:10.1177/1466424007079494 10.1177/1466424007079494 7. Wiese-Bjornstal DM , Smith AM , Shaffer SM , Morrey MA . An integrated model of response to sport injury: psychological and sociological dynamics . J Appl Sport Psychol . 1998 ; 10 : 46

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Ross Wadey, Kylie Roy-Davis, Lynne Evans, Karen Howells, Jade Salim and Ceri Diss

with the integrated model of response to sport injury ( Wiese-Bjornstal, Smith, Shaffer, & Morrey, 1998 ) and multilevel model of sport injury ( Wadey, Day, Cavallerio, & Martinelli, 2018 ), both of which consider athlete characteristics (e.g., beliefs, values, attitudes) alongside the broader social

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Diane M. Wiese-Bjornstal, Kristin N. Wood, Andrew C. White, Amanda J. Wambach and Victor J. Rubio

. Wiese-Bjornstal , D.M. , Smith , A.M. , Shaffer , S.M. , & Morrey , M.A. ( 1998 ). An integrated model of response to sport injury: Psychological and sociological dynamics . Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 10 , 46 – 69 . doi: 10.1080/10413209808406377 Wiese-Bjornstal , D.M. , White

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Britton W. Brewer, Allen E. Cornelius, Judy L. Van Raalte and Howard Tennen

– 1139 . doi: 10.1111/sms.12579 Wiese-Bjornstal , D.M. , Smith , A.M. , Shaffer , S.M. , & Morrey , M.A. ( 1998 ). An integrated model of response to sport injury: Psychological and sociological dimensions . Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 10 , 46 – 69 . doi: 10.1080/10413209808406377

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Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Kelsey DeGrave, Stephen Pack and Brian Hemmings

quarter-century of research in sports medicine psychology . Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 23 ( 2 ), 411 – 421 . Wiese-Bjornstal , D.M. , Smith , A.M. , Shaffer , S.M. , & Morrey , M.A. ( 1998 ). An integrated model of response to sport injury: Psychological and sociological dynamics

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Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Nathan Maresh and Jennifer Earl-Boehm

A . Psychological predictors of injury among elite athletes . Br J Sports Med . 2005 ; 39 : 351 – 354 . PubMed ID: 15911606 doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2005.018440 15911606 66. Wiese-Bjornstal DM , Smith AM , Shaffer SM , Morrey MA . An integrated model of response to sport injury