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Rob Duffield, Johann Edge, Robert Merrells, Emma Hawke, Matt Barnes, David Simcock and Nicholas Gill

Purpose:

The aim of this study was to determine whether compression garments improve intermittent-sprint performance and aid performance or self-reported recovery from high-intensity efforts on consecutive days.

Methods:

Following familiarization, 14 male rugby players performed two randomized testing conditions (with or without garments) involving consecutive days of a simulated team sport exercise protocol, separated by 24 h of recovery within each condition and 2 weeks between conditions. Each day involved an 80-min high-intensity exercise circuit, with exercise performance determined by repeated 20-m sprints and peak power on a cart dynamometer (single-man scrum machine). Measures of nude mass, heart rate, skin and tympanic temperature, and blood lactate (La) were recorded throughout each day; also, creatine kinase (CK) and muscle soreness were recorded each day and 48 h following exercise.

Results:

No differences (P = .20 to 0.40) were present between conditions on either day of the exercise protocol for repeated 20-m sprint efforts or peak power on a cart dynamometer. Heart rate, tympanic temperature, and body mass did not significantly differ between conditions; however, skin temperature was higher under the compression garments. Although no differences (P = .50) in La or CK were present, participants felt reduced levels of perceived muscle soreness in the ensuing 48 h postexercise when wearing the garments (2.5 ± 1.7 vs 3.5 ± 2.1 for garment and control; P = .01).

Conclusions:

The use of compression garments did not improve or hamper simulated team-sport activity on consecutive days. Despite benefits of reduced self-reported muscle soreness when wearing garments during and following exercise each day, no improvements in performance or recovery were apparent.

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Susana C. A. Póvoas, Carlo Castagna, José Manuel da Costa Soares, Pedro Silva, Manuel Coelho-e-Silva, Fernando Matos and Peter Krustrup

Purpose:

The reliability and construct validity of three age-adapted-intensity Yo-Yo tests were evaluated in untrained (n = 67) vs. soccer-trained (n = 65) 9- to 16-year-old schoolgirls.

Methods:

Tests were performed 7 days apart for reliability (9- to 11-year-old: Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children’s test; 12- to 13-yearold: Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 1; and 14- to 16-year-old: Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2).

Results:

Yo-Yo distance covered was 40% (776 ± 324 vs. 556 ± 156 m), 85% (1252 ± 484 vs. 675 ± 252 m) and 138% (674 ± 336 vs. 283 ± 66 m) greater (p ≤ .010) for the soccer-trained than for the untrained girls aged 9–11, 12–13 and 14–16 years, respectively. Typical errors of measurement for Yo-Yo distance covered, expressed as a percentage of the coefficient of variation (confidence limits), were 10.1% (8.1–13.7%), 11.0% (8.6–15.4%) and 11.6% (9.2–16.1%) for soccer players, and 11.5% (9.1–15.8%), 14.1% (11.0–19.8%) and 10.6% (8.5–14.2%) for untrained girls, aged 9–11, 12–13 and 14–16, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient values for test-retest were excellent (0.795–0.973) in both groups. No significant differences were observed in relative exercise peak heart rate (%HRpeak) between groups during test and retest.

Conclusion:

The Yo-Yo tests are reliable for determining intermittent-exercise capacity and %HRpeak for soccer players and untrained 9- to 16-year-old girls. They also possess construct validity with better performances for soccer players compared with untrained age-matched girls, despite similar %HRpeak.

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F. Marcello Iaia, Rampinini Ermanno and Jens Bangsbo

This article reviews the major physiological and performance effects of aerobic high-intensity and speed-endurance training in football, and provides insight on implementation of individual game-related physical training. Analysis and physiological measurements have revealed that modern football is highly energetically demanding, and the ability to perform repeated high-intensity work is of importance for the players. Furthermore, the most successful teams perform more high-intensity activities during a game when in possession of the ball. Hence, footballers need a high fitness level to cope with the physical demands of the game. Studies on football players have shown that 8 to 12 wk of aerobic high-intensity running training (>85% HRmax) leads to VO2max enhancement (5% to 11%), increased running economy (3% to 7%), and lower blood lactate accumulation during submaximal exercise, as well as improvements in the yo-yo intermittent recovery (YYIR) test performance (13%). Similar adaptations are observed when performing aerobic high-intensity training with small-sided games. Speed-endurance training has a positive effect on football-specific endurance, as shown by the marked improvements in the YYIR test (22% to 28%) and the ability to perform repeated sprints (~2%). In conclusion, both aerobic and speed-endurance training can be used during the season to improve high-intensity intermittent exercise performance. The type and amount of training should be game related and specific to the technical, tactical, and physical demands imposed on each player.

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Jonathan P. Little, Philip D. Chilibeck, Dawn Ciona, Scott Forbes, Huw Rees, Albert Vandenberg and Gordon A. Zello

Consuming carbohydrate-rich meals before continuous endurance exercise improves performance, yet few studies have evaluated the ideal preexercise meal for high-intensity intermittent exercise, which is characteristic of many team sports. The authors’ purpose was to investigate the effects of low- and high-glycemic-index (GI) meals on metabolism and performance during high-intensity, intermittent exercise. Sixteen male participants completed three 90-min high-intensity intermittent running trials in a single-blinded random order, separated by ~7 d, while fasted (control) and 2 hr after ingesting an isoenergetic low-GI (lentil), or high-GI (potato and egg white) preexercise meal. Serum free fatty acids were higher and insulin lower throughout exercise in the fasted condition (p < .05), but there were no differences in blood glucose during exercise between conditions. Distance covered on a repeated-sprint test at the end of exercise was significantly greater in the low-GI and high-GI conditions than in the control (p < .05). Rating of perceived exertion was lower in the low-GI condition than in the control (p = .01). In a subsample of 5 participants, muscle glycogen availability was greater in the low- and high-GI conditions versus fasted control before the repeated-sprint test (p < .05), with no differences between low and high GI. When exogenous carbohydrates are not provided during exercise both low- and high-GI preexercise meals improve high-intensity, intermittent exercise performance, probably by increasing the availability of muscle glycogen. However, the GI does not influence markers of substrate oxidation during high-intensity, intermittent exercise.

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Jonathan P. Little, Philip D. Chilibeck, Dawn Ciona, Albert Vandenberg and Gordon A. Zello

The glycemic index (GI) of a pre exercise meal may affect substrate utilization and performance during continuous exercise.

Purpose:

To examine the effects of low- and high-GI foods on metabolism and performance during high-intensity, intermittent exercise.

Methods:

Seven male athletes participated in three experimental trials (low-GI, high-GI, and fasted control) separated by ~7 days. Foods were consumed 3 h before (~1.3 g·kg−1 carbohydrate) and halfway through (~0.2 g·kg−1 carbohydrate) 90 min of intermittent treadmill running designed to simulate the activity pattern of soccer. Expired gas was collected during exercise to estimate substrate oxidation. Performance was assessed by the distance covered on fve 1-min sprints during the last 15 min of exercise.

Results:

Respiratory exchange ratio was higher and fat oxidation lower during exercise in the high-GI condition compared with fasting (P < .05). The mean difference in total distance covered on the repeated sprint test between low GI and fasting (247 m; 90% confidence limits ±352 m) represented an 81% (likely, probable) chance that the low-GI condition improved performance over fasting. The mean difference between high GI and fasted control (223 m; ±385 m) represented a 76% (likely, probable) chance of improved performance. There were no differences between low and high GI.

Conclusions:

When compared with fasting, both low- and high-GI foods consumed 3 h before and halfway through prolonged, high-intensity intermittent exercise improved repeated sprint performance. High-GI foods impaired fat oxidation during exercise but the GI did not appear to influence high-intensity, intermittent exercise performance.

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Harry E. Routledge, Jill J. Leckey, Matt J. Lee, Andrew Garnham, Stuart Graham, Darren Burgess, Louise M. Burke, Robert M. Erskine, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

. PubMed ID: 26920240 doi:10.1016/j.jand.2015.12.006 10.1016/j.jand.2015.12.006 10. Bangsbo J , Norregaard L , Thorsoe F . The effect of carbohydrate diet on intermittent exercise performance . Int J Sports Med . 1992 ; 13 ( 2 ): 152 – 157 . PubMed ID: 1555905 doi:10.1055/s-2007

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Susana Cristina Araújo Póvoas, Peter Krustrup, Carlo Castagna, Pedro Miguel Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva, Rita Liliana Mendes Pereira and Malte Nejst Larsen

(HR) and intermittent-exercise performance ( 1 , 8 , 14 – 16 , 18 , 49 , 50 ) and more sensitive to health-enhancing alterations induced by recreational football training interventions than the alternative variables often adopted in the assessment of aerobic fitness (eg, VO 2 max) ( 5 ). However, in

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Philippe Richard, Lymperis P. Koziris, Mathieu Charbonneau, Catherine Naulleau, Jonathan Tremblay and François Billaut

function 3 days after a repeated-sprint test, although no group differences were detected in sprint performance. 9 Moreover, Wylie et al 10 demonstrated that short-term nitrate intake improves intermittent exercise performance in recreationally active adults. These results suggest that an increased

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Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke

. PubMed Krustrup , P. , Ermidis , G. , & Mohr , M. ( 2015 ). Sodium bicarbonate intake improves high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in trained young men . Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12 , 25 . PubMed doi:10.1186/s12970-015-0087-6 10.1186/s12970

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Ozcan Esen, Ceri Nicholas, Mike Morris and Stephen J. Bailey

): 325 – 336 . PubMed ID: 23640589 doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00372.2013 23640589 10.1152/japplphysiol.00372.2013 5. Wylie LJ , Mohr M , Krustrup P , et al . Dietary nitrate supplementation improves team sport-specific intense intermittent exercise performance . Eur J Appl Physiol . 2013 ; 113