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Levi Frehlich, Christine Friedenreich, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Jasper Schipperijn and Gavin R. McCormack

( Doma, Speyer, Leicht, & Cordier, 2017 ). Recently, we adapted and tested the measurement properties of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) to capture neighborhood-based physical activity undertaken in the last week, finding that the self-administered tool had moderate to excellent

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Pedro Curi Hallal, Cesar Gomes Victora, Jonathan Charles Kingdon Wells, Rosângela Costa Lima and Neiva Jorge Valle

Background:

Our study aims to compare the short and full-length International Physical Activity Questionnaires (IPAQ).

Methods:

Both versions were completed by 186 subjects >14 y living in southern Brazil. Half answered the short and then the long version; the remaining subjects followed the reverse order. Physical inactivity (PI) was defined as <150 min/wk spent in moderate or vigorous activities. The Bland and Altman method and the kappa statistic were used to assess agreement between the continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively.

Results:

The prevalence of PI was 50% higher with the short IPAQ (42% vs. 28%). The kappa value was 53.7%. Although the correlation coefficient was moderately high (r=0.61), agreement between methods was low.

Conclusions:

Both analyses used show that the short and full-length IPAQ versions have poor agreement. Utilization of inappropriate statistics would lead to misinterpretation. Researchers should exercise care before comparing studies using different IPAQ versions.

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Dori E. Rosenberg, Fiona C. Bull, Alison L. Marshall, James F. Sallis and Adrian E. Bauman

Purpose:

This study explored definitions of sedentary behavior and examined the relationship between sitting time and physical inactivity using the sitting items from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ).

Methods:

Participants (N = 289, 44.6% male, mean age = 35.93) from 3 countries completed self-administered long- and short-IPAQ sitting items. Participants wore accelero-meters; were classified as inactive (no leisure-time activity), insufficiently active, or meeting recommendations; and were classified into tertiles of sitting behavior.

Results:

Reliability of sitting time was acceptable for men and women. Correlations between total sitting and accelerometer counts/min <100 were significant for both long (r = .33) and short (r = .34) forms. There was no agreement between tertiles of sitting and the inactivity category (kappa = .02, P = .68).

Conclusion:

Sedentary behavior should be explicitly measured in population surveillance and research instead of being defined by lack of physical activity.

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Kathleen Y. Wolin, Daniel P. Heil, Sandy Askew, Charles E. Matthews and Gary G. Bennett

Background:

The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-S) has been evaluated against accelerometer-determined physical activity measures in small homogenous samples of adults in the United States. There is limited information about the validity of the IPAQ-S in diverse US samples.

Methods:

142 Blacks residing in low-income housing completed the IPAQ-S and wore an accelerometer for up to 6 days. Both 1- and 10-minute accelerometer bouts were used to define time spent in light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity.

Results:

We found fair agreement between the IPAQ-S and accelerometer-determined physical activity (r = .26 for 10-minute bout, r = .36 for 1-minute bout). Correlations were higher among men than women. When we classified participants as meeting physical activity recommendations, agreement was low (kappa = .04, 10-minute; kappa = .21, 1-minute); only 25% of individuals were classified the same by both instruments (10-minute bout).

Conclusions:

In one of the few studies to assess the validity of a self-reported physical activity measure among Blacks, we found moderate correlations with accelerometer data, though correlations were weaker for women. Correlations were smaller when IPAQ-S data were compared using a 10- versus a 1-minute bout definition. There was limited evidence for agreement between the instruments when classifying participants as meeting physical activity recommendations.

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Corneel Vandelanotte, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Renaat Philippaerts, Michael Sjöström and James Sallis

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of a newly developed computerized Dutch version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ).

Methods:

Subjects (N = 53) completed the computerized IPAQ at three specified times. Subjects wore a CSA activity monitor during seven full days and simultaneously completed a 7-d physical activity diary. Finally, respondents filled out a paper and pencil IPAQ.

Results:

Intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.60 to 0.83. Correlations for “total physical activity” between the computerized IPAQ and the CSA activity counts were moderate (min: r = 0.38; kcal: r = 0.43). Correlations with the physical activity diary were also moderate (min: r = 0.39; kcal: r = 0.46). Correlations between the computerized and the paper and pencil IPAQ were high (min: r = 0.80; kcal: r = 0.84).

Conclusions:

The computerized Dutch IPAQ is a reliable and reasonably valid physical activity measurement tool for the general adult population.

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Robin P. Shook, Nicole C. Gribben, Gregory A. Hand, Amanda E. Paluch, Gregory J. Welk, John M. Jakicic, Brent Hutto, Stephanie Burgess and Steven N. Blair

Background:

Subjective measures of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) rely on relative intensity whereas objective measures capture absolute intensity; thus, fit individuals and unfit individuals may perceive the same activity differently.

Methods:

Adults (N = 211) wore the SenseWear Armband (SWA) for 10 consecutive days to objectively assess sedentary time and MVPA. On day 8, participants completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) to subjectively assess sitting time and MVPA. Fitness was assessed via a maximal treadmill test, and participants were classified as unfit if the result was in the bottom tertile of the study population by sex or fit if in the upper 2 tertiles.

Results:

Overall, estimates of MVPA between the IPAQ and SWA were not significantly different (IPAQ minus SWA, 67.4 ± 919.1 MVPA min/wk, P = .29). However, unfit participants overestimated MVPA using the IPAQ by 37.3% (P = .02), but fit participants did not (P = .99). This between-group difference was due to overestimation, using the IPAQ, of moderate activity by 93.8 min/wk among the unfit individuals, but underestimation of moderate activity among the fit participants by 149.4 min/wk.

Conclusion:

Subjective measures of MVPA using the IPAQ varied by fitness category; unfit participants overestimated their MVPA and fit participants accurately estimated their MVPA.

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Lise Crinière, Claire Lhommet, Agnès Caille, Bruno Giraudeau, Pierre Lecomte, Charles Couet, Jean-Michel Oppert and David Jacobi

Background:

Increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary time are cornerstones in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, there are few instruments available to measure physical activity in this population. We translated the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-L) into French and studied its reproducibility and validity in patients with T2DM.

Methods:

Reproducibility was studied by 2 telephone administrations, 8 days apart. Concurrent validity was tested against pedometry for 7 days during habitual life.

Results:

One-hundred forty-three patients with T2DM were recruited (59% males; age: 60.9 ± 10.5 years; BMI: 31.2 ± 5.2 kg/m2; HbA1c: 7.4 ± 1.2%). Intraclass correlation coefficients (95% CI) for repeated administration (n = 126) were 0.74 (0.61−0.83) for total physical activity, 0.72 (0.57−0.82) for walking, and 0.65 (0.51−0.78) for sitting time. Total physical activity and walking (MET-min·week-1) correlated with daily steps (Spearman r = .24 and r = .23, respectively, P < .05). Sitting time (min·week-1) correlated negatively with daily steps in women (r = −0.33; P < .05).

Conclusion:

Our French version of the IPAQ-L appears reliable to assess habitual physical activity and sedentary time in patients with T2DM, confirming previous data in nonclinical populations.

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Andreas Wolff Hansen, Inger Dahl-Petersen, Jørn Wulff Helge, Søren Brage, Morten Grønbæk and Trine Flensborg-Madsen

Background:

The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) is commonly used in surveys, but reliability and validity has not been established in the Danish population.

Methods:

Among participants in the Danish Health Examination survey 2007–2008, 142 healthy participants (45% men) wore a unit that combined accelerometry and heart rate monitoring (Acc+HR) for 7 consecutive days and then completed the IPAQ. Background data were obtained from the survey. Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and time in moderate, vigorous, and sedentary intensity levels were derived from the IPAQ and compared with estimates from Acc+HR using Spearman’s correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. Repeatability of the IPAQ was also assessed.

Results:

PAEE from the 2 methods was significantly positively correlated (0.29 and 0.49; P = 0.02 and P < 0.001; for women and men, respectively). Men significantly overestimated PAEE by IPAQ (56.2 vs 45.3 kJ/kg/day, IPAQ: Acc+HR, P < .01), while the difference was nonsignificant for women (40.8 vs 44.4 kJ/kg/day). Bland-Altman plots showed that the IPAQ overestimated PAEE, moderate, and vigorous activity without systematic error. Reliability of the IPAQ was moderate to high for all domains and intensities (total PAEE intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.58).

Conclusions:

This Danish Internet-based version of the long IPAQ had modest validity and reliability when assessing PAEE at population level.

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Pedro C. Hallal, Eduardo Simoes, Felipe F. Reichert, Mario R. Azevedo, Luiz R. Ramos, Michael Pratt and Ross C. Brownson

Purpose:

To evaluate the validity and reliability of the telephone-administered long IPAQ version.

Methods:

The questionnaire was administered by telephone to adults on days 1 and 6. On day 1, the same questionnaire was administered by face-to-face interview, and accelerometers were delivered to subjects. Reliability was measured by comparing data collected using the telephone questionnaire on days 1 and 6. Validity was measured by comparing the telephone questionnaire data with (a) face-to-face questionnaire and (b) accelerometry.

Results:

Data from all instruments were available for 156 individuals. The Spearman correlation coefficient for telephone interview reliability was 0.92 for the leisure-time section of IPAQ, and 0.87 for the transport-related section of IPAQ. The telephone interview reliability kappa was 0.78. The Spearman correlation between the telephone-administered and the face-to-face questionnaire was 0.94 for the leisure-time and 0.82 for the transport-related section. The kappa was 0.69. There was a positive association between quartiles of accelerometer data and total telephone-administered IPAQ score (P < .001). The Spearman correlation was 0.22.

Conclusions:

The telephone-administered IPAQ presented almost perfect reliability and very high agreement with the face-to-face version. The agreement with accelerometer data were fair for the continuous score, but moderate for the categorical physical activity variables.

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Adrian Bauman, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Fiona Bull, Cora L. Craig, Maria Hagströmer, James F. Sallis, Michael Pratt and Michael Sjöström