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awareness of the potential for harm must be paramount. Therefore, expert professional help should be sought before a consensual decision on supplement use is made. Lausanne, Switzerland, 5 May 2017 Endnote This Expert Group Statement presents the conclusions of the International Olympic Committee (IOC

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Georgia Cervin

, alongside athletics and swimming. 1 If this seems like recognition that the International Olympic Committee (IOC) needs gymnastics in its program, such a conclusion is not borne out in reality, as this paper demonstrates. In fact, the power in the relationship between the Federation Internationale de

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Wei Wei and Changjie Chen

with numerous lifestyle, sport, and youth magazines. As Head of Media Operations at the International Olympic Committee (IOC) from 2002 to 2020, he was the direct link between the IOC and the senior management of the world’s press and global television news organizations for almost two decades. He also

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Daniel S. Mason, Lucie Thibault, and Laura Misener

This article discusses agency problems in sport organizations in which the same individuals are involved in both the management and control of decision making. We focus our analysis on the case of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) by reviewing the behavior of selected IOC members with regard to the bidding process for the Olympic Games and the resulting reform attempts made by the IOC in an effort to address issues of corruption. After a review of examples of corrupt behavior on the part of IOC members, agency theory is introduced to discuss IOC reforms and provide some suggestions for future reform. We propose incorporating other stakeholders (in addition to the IOC members), such as corporate partners, media conglomerates, and other members of the Olympic movement (e.g., athletes, coaches, officials), into management and control functions. More specifi cally, it is suggested that these stakeholders comprise a board that oversees the operations of the IOC (similar to the IOC’s current executive committee) and be given the ability to remove and/or sanction IOC members who act self-interestedly to the detriment of the Olympic movement. Thus, by delegating the control function of decision making to a board and the management function to internal agents, greater accountability for all organization members can be achieved.

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Margo Mountjoy, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Louise Burke, Kathryn E. Ackerman, Cheri Blauwet, Naama Constantini, Constance Lebrun, Bronwen Lundy, Anna Melin, Nanna Meyer, Roberta Sherman, Adam S. Tenforde, Monica Klungland Torstveit, and Richard Budgett

In 2014, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) published a consensus statement entitled “Beyond the Female Athlete Triad: Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S)”. The syndrome of RED-S refers to: “impaired physiological functioning caused by relative energy deficiency, and includes but is

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Dwight H. Zakus

Many IOC actions have led to results that could be described as tragedy and farce. By comparing the presidency of Pierre de Coubertin with that of Avery Brundage, and comparing the decisions made in the denial of Jim Thorpe’s victories with the suspension of Karl Schranz, it is possible to see examples of tragedy and farce in the history of the Olympic movement. Further, it becomes possible to see how some of these actions and decisions have become hypocritical. The notion of hypocrisy is contained in Hoberman’s idea of “amoral universalism.” Several times the IOC has had to reverse its decisions regarding athletes. These decisions have resulted from hypocritical actions of the IOC in its attempt to maintain its version of Olympism as the guiding philosophy of the Olympic movement. The recent events surrounding Ben Johnson exemplify how the “amoral universalism,” and consequently the hypocrisy inherent in the Olympic movement, continue to affect the direct producers of Olympic performances.

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Benno M. Nigg

enthusiasm that we all got excited, and it is no accident that 5 of us served later as presidents of the ISB. In the 1990s, Richard Nelson and I myself worked with the International Olympic Committee Medical Commission. Our primary project was the International Olympic Committee-Olympic-Price. We worked on

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Anna Posbergh

, American skateboarder Alana Smith, and Canadian soccer player Quinn. While all three met the International Olympic Committee’s (IOC) eligibility requirements, their inclusion was met with both vociferous support and opposition. On the one hand, critics argued that including transgender individuals

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Nicholas Burton and Cheri Bradish

influence and of the intentional and overt framing of ambush marketing as an unethical or immoral practice, however, have yet to be explored. As such, this study sought to further examine the efforts of commercial rights holders—notably the International Olympic Committee (IOC)—in framing ambush marketing