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Volume 39 (2023): Issue 5 (Oct 2023): Special Issue: International Society of Biomechanics: 50 years of Musculoskeletal Biomechanics

JAB Journal of Applied Biomechanics 1065-8483 1543-2688 1 10 2023 39 5 10.1123/jab.2023.39.issue-5 Special Issue: International Society of Biomechanics: 50 years of Musculoskeletal Biomechanics Guest Editors: David G. Lloyd, Isle Jonkers, Scott L. Delp, and Luca Modenese EDITORIAL 10.1123/jab.2023

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Dr. Richard C. Nelson: Respected as the Father of the Japanese Society of Biomechanics

Mitsumasa Miyashita

Nearly a half century has passed since the International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) was officially established at the Pennsylvania State University in 1973. From 1957 to 1978, biomechanics studies in the field of sports and physical education in Japan had been conducted under the name of

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Dr. Richard C. Nelson: The Founding Father of Biomechanics

Vladimir Zatsiorsky

ton of new ideas and impressed us with his computer skills, which was quite unusual for biomechanics researchers at that time. During the conference, the International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) was established. That same year, 1973, a book by Doris Miller and Richard Nelson, Biomechanics of Sport

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Dr. Richard C. Nelson: A Facilitator and Door Opener

Benno M. Nigg

concerned about the worldwide development of the discipline of biomechanics, which became obvious during the biomechanics congress in Penn State, which Richard Nelson organized with his research group in 1973. During this Congress, an attempt was made to establish the International Society of Biomechanics

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Dr. Richard C. Nelson: A Water Tower Remembrance

Robert Shapiro

most exciting times for the lab at Penn State was in 1973 hosting the Fourth International Seminar of Biomechanics organizational meeting at which the International Society of Biomechanics was formed. We met biomechanists from all over the world, forming friendships and collaborations that would last a

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Dr. Richard C. Nelson—Mentor and Visionary: Lessons Learned, Memories Forever

Robert J. Gregor

, Penn State’s Biomechanics Lab was established in 1967. ” The last statement on this same plaque is “ The International Society of Biomechanics was founded here in 1973 ” (Figure  1 ). These were two major events that occurred early in the history of the development of biomechanics in the United States

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The History and Future of Neuromusculoskeletal Biomechanics

David G. Lloyd, Ilse Jonkers, Scott L. Delp, and Luca Modenese

The Executive Council of the International Society of Biomechanics has initiated and overseen the commemorations of the Society’s 50th Anniversary in 2023. This included multiple series of lectures at the ninth World Congress of Biomechanics in 2022 and XXIXth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics in 2023, all linked to special issues of International Society of Biomechanics’ affiliated journals. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Biomechanics is dedicated to the biomechanics of the neuromusculoskeletal system. The reader is encouraged to explore this special issue which comprises 6 papers exploring the current state-of the-art, and future directions and roles for neuromusculoskeletal biomechanics. This editorial presents a very brief history of the science of the neuromusculoskeletal system’s 4 main components: the central nervous system, musculotendon units, the musculoskeletal system, and joints, and how they biomechanically integrate to enable an understanding of the generation and control of human movement. This also entails a quick exploration of contemporary neuromusculoskeletal biomechanics and its future with new fields of application.

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An Endplate-Based Joint Coordinate System for Measuring Kinematics in Normal and Abnormally-Shaped Lumbar Vertebrae

David B. Berry, Ana E. Rodríguez-Soto, Jana R. Tokunaga, Sara P. Gombatto, and Samuel R. Ward

Vertebral level-dependent, angular, and linear translations of the spine have been measured in 2D and 3D using several imaging methods to quantify postural changes due to loading conditions and tasks. Here, we propose and validate a semiautomated method for measuring lumbar intervertebral angles and translations from upright MRI images using an endplate-based, joint coordinate system (JCS). This method was validated using 3D printed structures, representing intervertebral discs (IVD) at predetermined angles and heights, which were positioned between adjacent cadaveric vertebrae as a gold standard. Excellent agreement between our measurements and the gold standard was found for intervertebral angles in all anatomical planes (ICC > .997) and intervertebral distance measurements (ICC > .949). The proposed endplate-based JCS was compared with the vertebral body-based JCS proposed by the International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) using the 3D printed structures placed between 3 adjacent vertebrae from a cadaver with scoliosis. The endplate-based method was found to have better agreement with angles in the sagittal plane (ICC = 0.985) compared with the vertebral body-based method (ICC = .280). Thus, this method is accurate for measuring 3D intervertebral angles in the healthy and diseased lumbar spine.

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Robustness and Reproducibility of a Glenoid-centered Scapular Coordinate System Derived from Low-dose Stereoradiography Analysis

Xavier Ohl, Pierre-Yves Lagacé, Fabien Billuart, Olivier Gagey, Wafa Skalli, and Nicola Hagemeister

A robust and reproducible scapular coordinate system is necessary to study scapulothoracic kinematics. The coordinate system recommended by the ISB (International Society of Biomechanics) is difficult to apply in studies using medical imaging, which mostly use a glenoid-centered coordinate system. The aim of this study was to assess the robustness of a glenoid-centered coordinate system compared with the ISB coordinate system, and to study the reproducibility of this coordinate system measure during abduction. A Monte-Carlo analysis was performed to test the robustness of the two coordinate systems. This method enabled the variability of the orientation of the coordinate system to be assessed in a laboratory setting. A reproducibility study of the glenoid-centered coordinate system in the thorax reference frame was performed during abduction in the scapular plane using a low-dose stereoradiography system. We showed that the glenoid-centered coordinate system was slightly more robust than the ISB-recommended coordinate system. Most reproducible rotation was upward/downward rotation (x axis) and most reproducible translation was along the Y axis (superior-inferior translation). In conclusion, the glenoid-centered coordinate system can be used with confidence for scapular kinematics analysis. The uncertainty of the measures derived from our technique is acceptable compared with that reported in the literature. Functional quantitative analysis of the scapulothoracic joint is possible with this method.

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A Note From Katherine Boyer, the New Journal of Applied Biomechanics Editor-in-Chief

Katherine A. Boyer

field. With an interest in pushing the field forward, I will look for manuscripts that challenge current dogma with new ideas, use novel methods, or are otherwise innovative and support a fair, rigorous review process for these potentially controversial papers. As an International Society of