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Mitsumasa Miyashita

Nearly a half century has passed since the International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) was officially established at the Pennsylvania State University in 1973. From 1957 to 1978, biomechanics studies in the field of sports and physical education in Japan had been conducted under the name of

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Vladimir Zatsiorsky

ton of new ideas and impressed us with his computer skills, which was quite unusual for biomechanics researchers at that time. During the conference, the International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) was established. That same year, 1973, a book by Doris Miller and Richard Nelson, Biomechanics of Sport

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Benno M. Nigg

concerned about the worldwide development of the discipline of biomechanics, which became obvious during the biomechanics congress in Penn State, which Richard Nelson organized with his research group in 1973. During this Congress, an attempt was made to establish the International Society of Biomechanics

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Robert Shapiro

most exciting times for the lab at Penn State was in 1973 hosting the Fourth International Seminar of Biomechanics organizational meeting at which the International Society of Biomechanics was formed. We met biomechanists from all over the world, forming friendships and collaborations that would last a

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Robert J. Gregor

, Penn State’s Biomechanics Lab was established in 1967. ” The last statement on this same plaque is “ The International Society of Biomechanics was founded here in 1973 ” (Figure  1 ). These were two major events that occurred early in the history of the development of biomechanics in the United States

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Xavier Ohl, Pierre-Yves Lagacé, Fabien Billuart, Olivier Gagey, Wafa Skalli, and Nicola Hagemeister

A robust and reproducible scapular coordinate system is necessary to study scapulothoracic kinematics. The coordinate system recommended by the ISB (International Society of Biomechanics) is difficult to apply in studies using medical imaging, which mostly use a glenoid-centered coordinate system. The aim of this study was to assess the robustness of a glenoid-centered coordinate system compared with the ISB coordinate system, and to study the reproducibility of this coordinate system measure during abduction. A Monte-Carlo analysis was performed to test the robustness of the two coordinate systems. This method enabled the variability of the orientation of the coordinate system to be assessed in a laboratory setting. A reproducibility study of the glenoid-centered coordinate system in the thorax reference frame was performed during abduction in the scapular plane using a low-dose stereoradiography system. We showed that the glenoid-centered coordinate system was slightly more robust than the ISB-recommended coordinate system. Most reproducible rotation was upward/downward rotation (x axis) and most reproducible translation was along the Y axis (superior-inferior translation). In conclusion, the glenoid-centered coordinate system can be used with confidence for scapular kinematics analysis. The uncertainty of the measures derived from our technique is acceptable compared with that reported in the literature. Functional quantitative analysis of the scapulothoracic joint is possible with this method.

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David B. Berry, Ana E. Rodríguez-Soto, Jana R. Tokunaga, Sara P. Gombatto, and Samuel R. Ward

Vertebral level-dependent, angular, and linear translations of the spine have been measured in 2D and 3D using several imaging methods to quantify postural changes due to loading conditions and tasks. Here, we propose and validate a semiautomated method for measuring lumbar intervertebral angles and translations from upright MRI images using an endplate-based, joint coordinate system (JCS). This method was validated using 3D printed structures, representing intervertebral discs (IVD) at predetermined angles and heights, which were positioned between adjacent cadaveric vertebrae as a gold standard. Excellent agreement between our measurements and the gold standard was found for intervertebral angles in all anatomical planes (ICC > .997) and intervertebral distance measurements (ICC > .949). The proposed endplate-based JCS was compared with the vertebral body-based JCS proposed by the International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) using the 3D printed structures placed between 3 adjacent vertebrae from a cadaver with scoliosis. The endplate-based method was found to have better agreement with angles in the sagittal plane (ICC = 0.985) compared with the vertebral body-based method (ICC = .280). Thus, this method is accurate for measuring 3D intervertebral angles in the healthy and diseased lumbar spine.

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Katherine A. Boyer

field. With an interest in pushing the field forward, I will look for manuscripts that challenge current dogma with new ideas, use novel methods, or are otherwise innovative and support a fair, rigorous review process for these potentially controversial papers. As an International Society of

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Joseph Hamill

questions. I also learned early in my career that attending professional meetings (ie, American College of Sports Medicine, International Society of Biomechanics, American Society of Biomechanics, Canadian Society of Biomechanics, International Society of Biomechanics in Sports, etc.) is essential for the

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John H. Challis

the topic at the XVII International Society of Biomechanics Congress (1999). Dick was a proponent of the internationalization of science, and biomechanics in general. He played an important role in the development of the International Society of Biomechanics (ISB). In 1973, Dick, along with colleague