; Spruit et al., 2013 ). The Internet is increasingly used to promote physical activity for all individuals, particularly those with chronic diseases ( Tate, Lyons, & Valle, 2015 ). Web-based programs using evidence-based approaches can be effective in promoting change in physical activity behavior
Athina Liacos, Angela T. Burge, Narelle S. Cox, and Anne E. Holland
Mallory S. Kobak, Andrew Lepp, Michael J. Rebold, Hannah Faulkner, Shannon Martin, and Jacob E. Barkley
equipment and technology ( 5 , 7 , 12 – 14 , 18 , 23 , 34 , 35 , 37 , 43 ). In recent years, young children have become a growing part of the population who utilize mobile Internet-connected electronic devices (eg, cellular telephones, tablet computers) for purposes such as talking/texting, accessing
Brian Wilson and Lyndsay Hayhurst
This article reports findings from an interview-based study focused around the role of the Internet in the development and operations of four nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that use sport as part of their youth engagement efforts. Findings showed, on the one hand, how the emergence of certain NGOs would not have been possible if not for the Internet. On the other hand, it was clear that the Internet contributes to a form of “ironic activism,” meaning that the practices that underlie certain forms of Internet-enabled NGO activity also reproduce neoliberal, market-driven approaches to dealing with social problems. The article includes discussion about ways in which the use of communication technologies by “sport for development” NGOs is reflective of broader developments in and around the NGO community.
Internet-based sport communication mediums represent a crucial area of scholarly inquiry for the field. The continuing growth in popularity of blogs, message boards, and other Internet-specific types of sport communication presents sport communication scholars with a plethora of avenues for research. This commentary examines one such avenue, through a survey administered to users on 14 college sport message boards. Survey results indicated that message-board users were primarily male (87.8%) and White (90.8%) and possessed at least an undergraduate degree (76.0%). In addition, 42.2% of users reported a household income of $100,000 or more per year. The analysis of the resulting demographic and usage data highlights some of the key aspects of this sample of users, including information relating to race, gender, income, education level, and salience of message-board use by both subscribers and nonsubscribers. These and other factors are presented as potential areas of future scholarly inquiry for sport communication researchers.
Tyson M. Bain, Georita M. Frierson, Elaine Trudelle-Jackson, and James R. Morrow Jr.
Self-report measures have been validated and are widely used. Interest currently lies in the development of simple, valid methods that can be used in any location to determine level of PA in large populations/samples. The purpose of this report is to illustrate tracking of physical activity behaviors and musculoskeletal injury reports on a weekly basis via the Internet.
The Women’s Injury Study (WIN) methodology includes use of BRFSS-related physical activity items that are completed online by more than 900 women weekly for an average of 3 years.
With more than 45,000 weekly physical activity and injury logs, the percentage of total logs submitted via online records is 91%. Self-reported pedometer steps are consistent with similar, smaller research samples.
This report suggests that Internet tracking is a viable means of assessing nearly real-time physical activity, describes the process of developing and monitoring self-reported physical activity behaviors via the Internet, and provides recommendations for others considering such methods.
Chris Lonsdale, Ken Hodge, and Elaine A. Rose
The purpose of this study was to compare participant responses to a questionnaire delivered via the Internet with data collected using a traditional paper and pencil format distributed via postal mail. Athletes (N = 214, mean age 26.53 years) representing 18 sports from the New Zealand Academy of Sport were randomly assigned into two groups and completed the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke & Smith, 2001). There was a noticeable trend (p = .07, two-tailed) toward a better response rate in the online group (57.07%) compared with the postal group (46.63%). Furthermore, online questionnaires were returned faster and contained fewer missing responses. A series of nested, multigroup confirmatory factor analyses indicated that there were no significant group differences in the factor structure or latent mean structures of the ABQ.
Joachim Kimmerle, Kim-Kristin Gerbing, Ansgar Thiel, and Ulrike Cress
This research note provides an explorative analysis of sport-related knowledge exchange about Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) on the Internet. Data are taken from a qualitative content analysis of the largest German-speaking Internet sport portal. Knowledge exchange about CAM in these Internet fora is characterized by the following phenomena: Users expected CAM to improve their performance and discussed a great variety of treatments based on primarily anecdotal knowledge. In addition, two main types of users (helpers and help-seekers) dominated the exchanges. The main reasons for seeking alternative medical help on the Internet were cases of prolonged illness and dissatisfaction with biomedical care.
Rebekah Steele, W. Kerry Mummery, and Trudy Dwyer
A growing number of the population are using the Internet for health information, such as physical activity (PA). The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of delivery modes for a behavior change program targeting PA.
A randomized trial was conducted with 192 subjects randomly allocated to either a face-to-face, Internet-mediated, or Internet-only arm of a 12-wk intervention. Subjects included inactive adults with Internet access. The primary outcome variable was self-reported PA, assessed at four time points.
The results showed no group × time interaction for PA F(6, 567) = 1.64, p > 0.05, and no main effect for group F(2, 189) = 1.58, p > 0.05. However, a main effect for time F(3, 567) = 75.7, p < 0.01 was observed for each group. All groups were statistically equivalent immediately post-intervention (p < 0.05), but not at the follow-up time points (p > 0.05). The Internet-mediated and Internet-only groups showed similar increases in PA to the face-to-face group immediately post-intervention.
This study provides evidence in support of the Internet in the delivery of PA interventions and highlights avenues for future research.
Galen Clavio and Ted M. Kian
An Internet-based survey was posted on the Twitter feed of a retired female athlete to ascertain the demographics, uses, and gratifications of her feed’s followers. Analysis of the data revealed that followers were predominantly White, affluent, educated, and older than prior research into online audiences has shown. The perception of the athlete as being an expert at her sport was the most salient reason reported to follow the Twitter feed, followed by affinity for the athlete’s writing style. Analysis of variance uncovered 5 significant differences in item salience between male and female followers, with women more likely to use this Twitter feed because of affinity for the athlete and men more likely to use it because of perception of the athlete as physically attractive. Factor analysis uncovered 3 dimensions of gratification: an organic fandom factor, a functional fandom factor, and an interactivity factor.
Adam Love, Bianca Gonzalez-Sobrino, and Matthew W. Hughey
The current study analyzed comments posted on Internet message boards devoted to U.S. college football. The investigators collected comments (N = 3,800) about instances in which a player initially announced intent to attend a particular university, but later changed his mind and signed a National Letter of Intent to attend a different university. While few posts included explicit mention of race (n = 11), commenters more frequently used forms of “color-blind” racial rhetoric that invoked racialized meanings without the overt use of racial terms (n = 346). Comments often reflected a white colonial framing of football players’ decisions, behaviors, and abilities, expressing a number of common racialized assumptions, including beliefs in the natural superiority of black physicality, doubts about black intellectual ability, and expectations about whites possessing skill, technique, and mental capacity. The presence of these racialized assumptions points to the continued salience of race in an era that is often claimed to be “color-blind” and free of racial discrimination.