The aim of this study was to investigate the convergent and divergent validity between the Body Coordination Test for Children (KTK) and the Motor Proficiency Test for 4- to 6-Year-Old Children (MOT 4-6). A total of 638 children (5–6 yr old) took part in the study. The results showed a moderately positive association between the total scores of both tests (r s = .63). Moreover, the KTK total score correlated more highly with the MOT 4-6 gross motor score than with the MOT 4-6 fine motor score (r s = .62 vs. .32). Levels of agreement were moderate when identifying children with moderate or severe motor problems and low at best when detecting children with higher motor-competence levels. This study provides evidence of convergent and divergent validity between the KTK and MOT 4-6. However, given the moderate to low levels of agreement, either measurement may lead to possible categorization errors. Therefore, it is recommended that children’s motor competence not be judged based on the result of a single test.
Farid Bardid, Floris Huyben, Frederik J.A. Deconinck, Kristine De Martelaer, Jan Seghers and Matthieu Lenoir
Danilo Bondi, Sergio Di Sano, Vittore Verratti, Giampiero Neri, Tiziana Aureli and Tiziana Pietrangelo
physical activity levels, could be a discriminative factor between good and poor performer on coordinative traits ( D’Hondt et al., 2013 ). Among the assessment batteries for coordination in children, Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK test; Coordination Test for Children ; Kiphard & Schilling
Dimitrios Aivazidis, Fotini Venetsanou, Nikolaos Aggeloussis, Vassilios Gourgoulis and Antonis Kambas
’ body mass index (BMI) was calculated according to the formula weight/height 2 , and BMI status was estimated following International Obesity Task Force cutoffs. 40 Motor Competence Children’s MC was assessed by the Körperkoordination Test für Kinder (KTK), 41 a product-oriented assessment tool
Andrew R. Novak, Kyle J.M. Bennett, Adam Beavan, Johan Pion, Tania Spiteri, Job Fransen and Matthieu Lenoir
This study aimed to determine if the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) remained a valid assessment of motor competence following the removal of the hopping for height subtest (KTK3). Children (n = 2479) aged 6–11 years completed all KTK subtests (KTK4) and motor quotient sum scores (MQS) were determined for the KTK3 and KTK4. Classifications were established as MQS below percentile 5 (P5), MQS between percentile 5–15 (P15), MQS between percentile 15–50 (P15–50), MQS between percentile 50–85 (P50–85), MQS between percentile 85–95 (P85), and MQS higher than percentile 95 (P95). Pearson’s correlation (r = .97) and cross-tabs (Chi2 = 6822.53, p < .001; Kappa = 0.72) identified substantial agreement overall between the KTK3 and KTK4. However, when classified into separate age and gender categories, poor agreement (< 60%) was found in girls: P15 at 8–11 years and P85 at 6–7 years; and in boys: P5 and P15 at 6 years, P85 at 8 years, and P15 at 10 years. Researchers should consider these findings when selecting which KTK protocol to use.
In the article by Bardid F., Huyben F., Deconinck F.J.A., De Martelaer K., Seghers J., & Lenoir M., “Convergent and Divergent Validity Between the KTK and MOT 4-6 Motor Tests in Early Childhood, ” in Adapted Pyhsical Activity Quarterly, 33(1), the wrong DOI was printed. The DOI for this article is http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/APAQ.2014-0228. The online version has been corrected.
Joric B. Vandendriessche, Barbara Vandorpe, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva, Roel Vaeyens, Matthieu Lenoir, Johan Lefevre and Renaat M. Philippaerts
Discussions of growth and motor performance of children are often set in the context of physical fitness. Although there is a clear theoretical concept or definition of fitness comprising motor coordination, the latter is not systematically considered. This study determined to what extent the variance in motor coordination might be explained by morphological and fitness characteristics. To postulate understanding of this association during childhood, 613 boys aged 7–11 years completed the morphological measurements, the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) and different fitness tests. The results demonstrated a substantial interrelationship among morphology, fitness and motor coordination in elementary school boys. The magnitude of explained variance and the loadings of the canonical correlation between the several constructs are strongly pronounced during childhood indicating that these constructs should be well considered given their contribution to a child’s general development.
Rodrigo A. Lima, Karin Pfeiffer, Lisbeth R. Larsen, Anna Bugge, Niels C. Moller, Lars B. Anderson and David F. Stodden
The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years.
This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS), with 3 measuring points [mean ages (in years) and respective sample size: 6.75 ± 0.37, n = 696; 9.59 ± 1.07, n = 617; 13.35 ± 0.34, n = 513]. PA was assessed using accelerometers. MC was evaluated by the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) test battery. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) was evaluated using a continuous running protocol until exhaustion. Structural equation modeling was performed to evaluate the longitudinal associations.
Vigorous PA (VPA) and MC presented reciprocal longitudinal association during the 7-year follow-up (VPA → MC; β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.26; MC → VPA; β = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.21). In addition, VO2peak mediated the relationship in both directions (VPA → MC; β = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.12; MC → VPA; β = 0.06; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.09).
PA and MC presented a positive reciprocal relationship across childhood through early adolescence and VO2peak mediated the association in both directions. Interventions targeting to increase PA in children and adolescents should also address the development of MC skills because of the clear positive feedback loop between PA and MC.
the 2012 London Paralympic Games Jadeera Phaik Geok Cheong * Selina Khoo * Rizal Razman * 1 2016 33 1 15 32 10.1123/APAQ.2015-0021 Convergent and Divergent Validity Between the KTK and MOT 4-6 Motor Tests in Early Childhood Farid Bardid * Floris Huyben * Frederik J.A. Deconinck * Kristine
Daniel das Virgens Chagas and Luiz Alberto Batista
scored on a 5-point scale. Motor coordination was assessed using the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK). The KTK is a reliable and valid instrument ( Kiphard & Shilling, 2007 ) for middle school-aged children and consists of 4 tests. The first is walking backward on balance beams (3 m length) of
Ali Brian, Farid Bardid, Lisa M. Barnett, Frederik J.A. Deconinck, Matthieu Lenoir and Jacqueline D. Goodway
product-oriented assessments such as the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK; Kiphard & Schilling, 2007 ) are generally adopted in Europe. Comparative research on motor competence levels between children from distinct regions is scarce ( Bardid, Rudd, Lenoir, Polman, & Barnett, 2015 ; Chow