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Joanne G. Mirtschin, Sara F. Forbes, Louise E. Cato, Ida A. Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall and Louise M. Burke

nutrition practices and food choices of three different sports nutrition philosophies (high carbohydrate [CHO] availability [HCHO], periodized CHO availability [PCHO], and the ketogenic low-CHO, high-fat [LCHF] diet), noting that these seem to be misunderstood across the scientific literature, social media

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Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff and Ronald J. Maughan

 al., 2017 ), although they are used in real-world practice ( Stellingwerff, 2012 ). Nonketogenic low-CHO high-fat (NK-LCHF) diet • Dietary plan in which CHO availability is chronically (days/weeks/months) maintained below muscle CHO needs to promote adaptations favoring fat oxidation, but with sufficient

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Iñigo Mujika

availability (HCHO) inducing glycogen super-compensation and CHO intake during exercise. Such strategies, however, failed to enhance ultra-endurance performance in well-trained athletes ( Carey et al., 2001 ). A longer (3 week) LCHF diet markedly increased whole-body fat oxidation rates in elite race walkers

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Christopher C. Webster, Jeroen Swart, Timothy D. Noakes and James A. Smith

Low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diets have gained in popularity among some ultraendurance athletes because they increase rates of fat oxidation during exercise and “spare” muscle glycogen. 1 However, prevailing opinion holds that carbohydrate restriction would compromise exercise performance at

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke

training alone as it can be doubled, or even tripled, by chronic adaptation to a LCHF diet ( Burke et al., 2002 , 2017 ; Carey et al., 2001 ). Various models have been used to achieve these high fat oxidation rates including nonketogenic CHO-restricted diet (NK-LCHF; typically 65% energy as fat and <20

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Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué and Damian Farrow

intensities are required, even for brief periods; however, events involving only low-to-moderate-intensity activity might benefit from further investigation of the protocol. The recent reemergence of interest in the ketogenic LCHF diet (<50 g/d CHO, 75%–80% fat, and moderate protein intake) has also raised