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René Revis Shingles

. From 2009 to 2013, 20.7% of the U.S. population spoke a language other than English, with Spanish and Chinese as the most common. ( United States Census Bureau, 2015 ). Historically, cultural-competence education included providing a “list of traits” or characteristics germane to ethnic and racial

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Mary Beth Allen

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Vincent J. Granito Jr. and Betty J. Wenz

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Nicholas Gant, Ajmol Ali and Andrew Foskett

Carbohydrate and caffeine are known to independently improve certain aspects of athletic performance. However, less is understood about physiological and performance outcomes when these compounds are coingested in a rehydration and carbohydrate-replacement strategy. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of adding a moderate dose of caffeine to a carbohydrate solution during prolonged soccer activity. Fifteen male soccer players performed two 90-min intermittent shuttle-running trials. They ingested a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CON) providing a total of 1.8 g/kg body mass (BM) of carbohydrate or a similar solution with added caffeine (CAF; 3.7 mg/kg BM). Solutions were ingested 1 hr before exercise and every 15 min during the protocol. Soccer passing skill and countermovement-jump height (CMJ) were quantified before exercise and regularly during exercise. Sprinting performance, heart rate, blood lactate concentration (La) and the subjective experiences of participants were measured routinely. Mean 15-m sprint time was faster during CAF (p = .04); over the final 15 min of exercise mean sprint times were CAF 2.48 ± 0.15 s vs. CON 2.59 ± 0.2 s. Explosive leg power (CMJ) was improved during CAF (52.9 ± 5.8 vs. CON 51.7 ± 5.7 cm, p = .03). Heart rate was elevated throughout CAF, and ratings of pleasure were significantly enhanced. There were no significant differences in passing skill, rating of perceived exertion, La, or body-mass losses between trials. The addition of caffeine to the carbohydrate-electrolyte solution improved sprinting performance, countermovement jumping, and the subjective experiences of players. Caffeine appeared to offset the fatigue-induced decline in self-selected components of performance.

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Andrew Foskett, Ajmol Ali and Nicholas Gant

There is little evidence regarding the benefits of caffeine ingestion on cognitive function and skillful actions during sporting performance, especially in sports that are multifaceted in their physiological, skill, and cognitive demands.

Purpose:

To examine the influence of caffeine on performance during simulated soccer activity.

Methods:

Twelve male soccer players completed two 90-min soccer-specific intermittent running trials interspersed with tests of soccer skill (LSPT). The trials were separated by 7 days and adhered to a randomized crossover design. On each occasion participants ingested 6 mg/kg body mass (BM) of caffeine (CAF) or a placebo (PLA) in a double-blind fashion 60 min before exercise. Movement time, penalties accrued, and total time were recorded for the LSPT. Physiological and performance markers were measured throughout the protocol. Water (3 ml/kg BM) was ingested every 15 min.

Results:

Participants accrued significantly less penalty time in the CAF trial (9.7 ± 6.6 s vs. PLA 11.6 ± 7.4 s; p = .02), leading to a significantly lower total time in this trial (CAF 51.6 ± 7.7 s vs. PLA 53.9 ± 8.5 s; p = .02). This decrease in penalty time was probably attributable to an increased passing accuracy in the CAF trial (p = .06). Jump height was 2.7% (± 1.1%) higher in the CAF trial (57.1 ± 5.1 cm vs. PLA 55.6 ± 5.1 cm; p = .01).

Conclusions:

Caffeine ingestion before simulated soccer activity improved players’ passing accuracy and jump performance without any detrimental effects on other performance parameters.

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Patrick List

Column-editor : Tracy Ray

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Peter Wolf, Renate List, Thomas Ukelo, Christian Maiwald and Alex Stacoff

Before conclusions can be drawn with respect to the quality of adaptations in human gait, the day-to-day consistency of the variables of interest must be known. The present study estimated the day-to-day consistency of kinematic variables collected during barefoot walking and running. Sixteen healthy subjects performed two gait analysis sessions based on skin markers. Test sessions were at least 1 week apart. In total, 48 ranges of motion were monitored for the hip, knee, ankle, and midfoot joint. Based on differences between the repeated gait analysis sessions, the day-to-day consistency was estimated. It was found that the day-to-day consistency was of the magnitude of 3 to 4 degrees for almost all ranges of motion independently of the test condition, the investigated joints, or the cardinal body plane. It was concluded that future studies on effects of interventions or on the characterization of pathological versus normative gait should consider the provided values of day-to-day consistency to improve their interpretation and conclusions.

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Pascal Schütz, Renate List, Roland Zemp, Florian Schellenberg, William R. Taylor and Silvio Lorenzetti

The aim of this study was to quantify how step length and the front tibia angle influence joint angles and loading conditions during the split squat exercise. Eleven subjects performed split squats with an additional load of 25% body weight applied using a barbell. Each subject’s movements were recorded using a motion capture system, and the ground reaction force was measured under each foot. The joint angles and loading conditions were calculated using a cluster-based kinematic approach and inverse dynamics modeling respectively. Increases in the tibia angle resulted in a smaller range of motion (ROM) of the front knee and a larger ROM of the rear knee and hip. The external flexion moment in the front knee/hip and the external extension moment in the rear hip decreased as the tibia angle increased. The flexion moment in the rear knee increased as the tibia angle increased. The load distribution between the legs changed < 25% when split squat execution was varied. Our results describing the changes in joint angles and the resulting differences in the moments of the knee and hip will allow coaches and therapists to adapt the split squat exercise to the individual motion and load demands of athletes.

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Jennifer L. Lister, Gianluca Del Rossi, Fangchao Ma, Mark Stoutenberg, Jessica B. Adams, Sara Tobkin and Joseph F. Signorile

Context:

There are numerous ways to overload the scapular stabilizers.

Objectives:

To assess scapular stabilizer activity using the Bodyblade® and other traditional training devices.

Design:

Repeated measures analysis of surface EMG data collected from the upper trapezius (UT), lower trapezius (LT), and serratus anterior (SA) during shoulder flexion and abduction using Bodyblade®, cuff weight, and Thera-Band® resistance.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Participants:

Thirty collegiate athletes (20.0 ± 1.7 years).

Intervention:

Participants performed 10 repetitions of shoulder flexion and abduction.

Main Outcome Measures:

For each movement, normalized root mean square values (NrmsEMG) were computed for each muscle during each repetition under each training condition. Data were analyzed using 3 (condition) × 10 (repetition) repeated measures ANOVAs.

Results:

During shoulder flexion and abduction, the NrmsEMG of the UT, LT, and SA were significantly greater when using the Bodyblade® than the Thera-Band® or cuff weight.

Conclusion:

The Bodyblade® produces greater scapular activity than traditional resistance techniques.