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Zhengjia Liu and Dan Berkowitz

Social media have changed the way that social actors participate in sports events. “Prosumers” are able to directly offer different interpretations without journalists’ mediation when a social issue arises. However, social media do not fundamentally change the significance of cultural narratives in communication. This study focuses on discussions initiated by a commercial feed on a Chinese microblogging site during the 2012 London Olympic Games. Qualitative textual analysis was conducted. The study found that enduring cultural narratives create the predrafts of social-media communication; the instantaneity of microblogging referred to not simply its physical appearance but also the meaning of that appearance. In addition, social-media texts illustrate a society’s ongoing stories. Going beyond the limitations of previous control-vs.-freedom paradigms, this study explores a Chinese consumer society that is more dynamic and complex than previous studies would suggest.

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Paulette Stevenson

formations, Oiselle presents to a US female audience an empowered, unveiled Sarah Attar much different than the Sarah Attar of the 2012 London Olympics. By joining Oiselle, Attar stands along women’s running icons Lauren Fleshman and Kara Goucher as a “sister.” A closer consideration of the way Oiselle

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Andrea Eagleman, Lauren M. Burch and Ryan Vooris

Traditional media coverage of the Olympic Games has been shown to exhibit biases in terms of gender, nationality, and the type of sports covered, which can contribute to negative societal consequences and inaccurate historical records of such events. Scholars have suggested that because of the Internet’s expanded spatial parameters, new media have the ability to provide more equitable coverage of events such as the Olympics. In this study, we used agenda setting theory to employ a content analysis methodology to determine whether different constructions of the 2012 London Olympics were presented to media consumers on news websites in Australia, Brazil, China, Great Britain, Kenya, and the United States. Findings indicated that very few gender, nationalistic, or sport biases existed in any of the countries’ coverage, lending credence to the notion that the Internet affords media managers with an opportunity to provide more equitable coverage and thus a more accurate depiction of events.

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Grace Yan and Nicholas M. Watanabe

After the South Korean men’s soccer team beat its Japanese counterpart in the bronze-medal match at the 2012 London Olympics, South Korean player Park Jung-Woo celebrated with a banner that displayed Dokdo is our land. Dokdo is called the Liancourt Rocks in English, the sovereignty over which has been an ongoing point of contention between South Korea and Japan. This study conducts a critical discourse analysis to examine media representations of Park’s banner celebration, as well as the ensuing discussion in major Korean and Japanese newspapers. The analysis reveals a contrastive picture: The Korean media vocally approached Park’s behavior as an emotional response of self-righteous indignation and quickly enacted memories of Korea’s victimhood in World War II to make justifications, whereas the Japanese media participated in a relatively disengaged absence. Japan’s silence disclosed a glimpse into its rich postwar history of social conflict and political resistance. Such contrast is also indicative of how sport media can be engaged in nuanced social contexts, generating representations that serve nation-state regimes situated in different political dynamics.

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Philip Davis, Peter R. Benson, Robert Waldock and Andrew J. Connorton

Female boxing debuted at the 2012 London Olympic Games. To better understand the performance aspects of the sport, video footage of eighteen 4 × 2-min bouts were analyzed. The boxers involved in the competition were of an elite level (mean ± SD), age 26.4 ± 4.6 y, height 169.3 ± 6.2 cm, and weight 60.3 ± 10.0 kg. Analysis revealed an activity rate of ~1.6 actions/s, including ~16 punches, ~3.3 defensive movements, and ~63 vertical hip movements, all per minute, over the 4 × ~132-s rounds (R). A 2 × 4 (outcome × round) ANOVA with repeated measures over the rounds was used to analyze the data. Winners maintained a higher activity rate in round 1 (R1) and R2; a higher movement rate in R2, R3, and R4; and an increased punch accuracy including the ratio of total punches to punches landed in R3 and air punches as a percentage of punches missed in R1 and R3. Specific techniques that discriminate between successful and unsuccessful female amateur boxers include the straight rear-hand and body punches, higher for winners in R1, as well as uppercut punches and defensive foot movements, higher for winners in R4. Findings highlight the current demands of elite amateur female boxing. These data will be useful for those designing training programs and may also be useful for guiding sport-specific fitness testing.

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Martha Saavedra

created within the Pride Houses is built on liberal notions of rights and sovereignty that depend on a white settler colonialism within Canada, imperialist logics globally, and the Olympic myth of universalism. Sykes develops these ideas in chapter 5 on the London Olympics through analyzing an assemblage

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Nancy E. Spencer

notoriously referred to as ‘nappy-headed hos;’ and Gabby Douglas, whose ponytail “inspired conversation on various social media platforms, especially on… ‘Black Twitter’” during the 2012 London Olympics ( Schultz, 2014 , p. 6). The analysis of the ponytail illustrates the cultural significance of a seemingly

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Kristoffer Henriksen

congruent with my personal beliefs and values. The philosophy was updated after the London Olympic Games. It is beyond the scope of this paper to present all the reflections and changes in our philosophy (a revised version is currently being drafted for publication), but I will mention a key idea, which is

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Bo Li, Olan K.M. Scott, Stirling Sharpe, Qingru Xu and Michael Naraine

perspectives. For instance, Bie and Billings ( 2015 ) studied how Chinese and American newspapers reported the achievement of Chinese swimmer Ye Shiwen at the 2012 London Olympics; Chinese journalists placed more emphasis on the swimmer’s achievements, while American media outlets questioned whether the

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Bianca Miarka, Katarzyna Sterkowicz-Przybycien and David H. Fukuda

force couple differences among sex groups may be related to the application of specific throwing techniques. Authors reported a predominance of upper extremity actions during the London Olympic Games, but with specific differences in the techniques utilized ( Sterkowicz et al., 2013 ), while a preceding