The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of subclinical psychological difficulties, as assessed by the Multilevel Classification System for Sport Psychology (MCS-SP; Gardner & Moore, 2004b, 2006), on the efficacy of the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC; Gardner & Moore, 2004a, 2007) performance enhancement intervention. Thirteen collegiate field hockey and volleyball athletes participated in a 7-week MAC protocol, and their results were compared to those of a control group of 7 same-sport athletes. Nonparametric analysis of the data offers additional support for MAC as a strategy for enhancing the athletic performance of collegiate athletes and suggests the importance of the accurate assessment of subclinical psychological difficulties to ensure the successful application of sport psychology interventions. In essence, these results suggest that the presence or absence of subclinical psychological difficulties may serve as a moderating factor in performance enhancement efforts.
Andrew T. Wolanin and Lori A. Schwanhausser
Zella E. Moore
As long as athletes strive to attain optimal performance states and consistently reach high performance goals, psychological interventions will be used to assist in the development of skill and the maintenance of performance. In the pursuit of these goals, newer evidence-driven models based on mindfulness- and acceptance-based approaches have been designed to achieve these ends. Based upon questionable efficacy data for traditional psychological skills training procedures that emphasize reduction or control of internal processes, mindfulness- and acceptance-based approaches develop skills of nonjudging mindful awareness, mindful attention, and experiential acceptance to aid in the pursuit of valued goals. The most formalized and researched mindfulness- and acceptance-based approach within sport psychology is the manualized Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) protocol. In the 8 years since the MAC was first developed and presented, and the 5 years since the first publication on the protocol, the MAC program has accumulated a continually growing empirical base for both its underlying theory and intervention efficacy as a performance enhancement intervention. This article reviews the empirical and theoretical foundations of the mindfulness- and acceptance-based approaches in general, and MAC in particular; reviews the accumulated empirical findings in support of the MAC approach for performance enhancement; and presents recent MAC developments and suggested future directions.
This study presents the case of Steve, an adolescent competitive springboard diver. This diver, referred by his coach, received the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) approach for performance enhancement. The MAC protocol, originally written for an adult population, was used in modified form (under consultation from the authors) to ensure appropriateness for an adolescent population. Conducted in nine individual sessions, the intervention targeted abilities in attention and value-driven behavior to enhance focus, poise, and overall diving performance. Self-report measures of mindfulness and flow, along with objective measures of diving performance were collected pre- and postintervention. Results indicated increases in mindful awareness, mindful attention, experiential acceptance, flow, and diving performance from pre- to postintervention. This case supports the applicability of the MAC protocol with an adolescent athlete population.
Enzo Iuliano, Giovanni Fiorilli, Giovanna Aquino, Alfonso Di Costanzo, Giuseppe Calcagno, and Alessandra di Cagno
0 ( bad ) to 8 ( good ) points. The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) ( Crook, Feher, & Larrabee, 1992 ) is a self-reported questionnaire for the subjective evaluation of the memory complaint. It consists of six questions concerning the subjective perception of the memory efficacy in daily
Oscar Mac Ananey, Brendan McLoughlin, Ann Leonard, Lewena Maher, Peter Gaffney, Gerard Boran, and Vincent Maher
Several obesity related factors are reported to exacerbate premature arterial stiffening, including inactivity and metabolic disarray. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between physical activity, arterial stiffness and adiposity using objective methods. To further explore the role of adiposity in this complex process, obesity associated anthropometric and humoral biomarkers were measured.
Seventy-nine healthy, lifelong nonsmoking subjects were recruited. Habitual physical activity was measured using accelerometry. Arterial stiffness [augmentation index (AIx) and pulse wave velocity (PWV)] was measured using tonometry. Body composition was estimated using bioimpedence. Adipose associated biomarkers, leptin and adiponectin, were also measured.
Sedentary time was significantly associated with AIx (r = 0.38, P < .001), PWV (r = 0.33, P < .01), body fat composition (r = 0.40, P < .001) and age (r = 0.30, P < .01). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was inversely correlated with AIx (r = –0.28, P < .05), body fat composition (r = –0.30, P < .01), postprandial insulin (r = –0.35, P < .01), and leptin/adiponectin ratio (r = –0.28, P < .05). MVPA, body fat composition, and postprandial insulin remained independent predictors of AIx but not PWV.
The more time healthy individuals spend being sedentary, the greater their body fat and arterial stiffness. Conversely higher activity levels are associated with reduced body fat and less arterial stiffness.
Ciaran Mac Donncha, Anthony W.S. Watson, Terence McSweeney, and Daniel J. O’Donovan
The purpose was to examine the reliability of physical fitness items from the Eurofit Test Battery for adolescent males with mild mental retardation (MMR; n = 63, mean IQ = 63.0 ±11.5, mean age = 15.5 ± 1.2) and those without (n = 22, mean age = 15.6 ± 0.6). Males with MMR scored significantly lower (p ≤ .005) than those without on all items except sum of skinfolds, height, and weight. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) ranged from .94 to .99 for males with MMR and .85 to .99 for those without. Percentage error of the mean for all items ranged from 0.5 to 47.5% for participants with MMR and 0.4 to 32.2% for those without. ICCs indicated that Eurofit physical fitness test items are reliable measures for males with and without MMR. However, the percentage error of the mean is quite large for sit-and-reach and 20-m shuttle test (20-MST) items.
Vincent J. Dalbo, Michael D. Roberts, Scott E. Hassell, Jordan R. Moon, and Chad M. Kerksick
This investigation examined the safety and efficacy of a silica-based mineral antioxidant complex (MAC) that has been suggested to influence body water and buffer lactate.
In a double-blind, randomized crossover design, male participants completed testing for 3 conditions: water only (baseline), rice flour (placebo), and MAC supplementation. Participants visited the laboratory on 5 occasions: familiarization, baseline, Testing Day 1, washout, and Testing Day 2. Baseline and Testing Days 1 and 2 consisted of fasting blood, pre- to postexercise body-water assessment and determination of VO2peak on a cycle ergometer. The supplementation protocols were separated by 1 wk and balanced to minimize an order effect.
No differences between conditions were found for heart rate, blood pressure, or serum-safety markers (p > .05). Before exercise there were no differences between conditions for total body water (TBW), intracellular water (ICW), or extracellular water (ECW). No significant interactive effects for supplementation and exercise were found for TBW, ICW, or ECW (p > .05). A time effect for TBW (p < .01) and ICW (p < .001) was present. Within-group changes in TBW occurred in the MAC condition, and within-group changes for ICW occurred in the MAC and placebo conditions. Ratings of perceived exertion and blood lactate increased (p < .05) with exercise. No significant effects were found for performance variables.
MAC supplementation had no impact on aerobic exercise performance and lactate response. Increases in TBW and ICW occurred after MAC consumption, but these changes appeared to have minimal physiological impact.
Jessica M. Lutkenhouse
The present case study illustrates the treatment of a 19-year-old female lacrosse player, classified as experiencing Performance Dysfunction (Pdy) by the Multilevel Classification System for Sport Psychology (MCS-SP). The self-referred collegiate athlete was treated using the manualized Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) protocol (Gardner & Moore, 2004a, 2007). The intervention consisted of eight individual sessions and several follow-up contacts via e-mail. The majority of the sessions addressed clinically related and sport-related concerns, including difficulties in emotion regulation and problematic interpersonal relationships. Based on self-report, coach report, and one outcome assessment measure, the psychological intervention resulted in enhanced overall behavioral functioning and enhanced athletic performance. This case study suggests that following careful case formulation based on appropriate assessment and interview data, the MAC intervention successfully targeted the clearly defined psychological processes underlying the athlete’s performance concerns and personal obstacles, thus resulting in enhanced well-being and athletic performance improvements.
Kevin C. Deere, Kimberly Hannam, Jessica Coulson, Alex Ireland, Jamie S. McPhee, Charlotte Moss, Mark H. Edwards, Elaine Dennison, Cyrus Cooper, Adrian Sayers, Matthijs Lipperts, Bernd Grimm, and Jon H. Tobias
Physical activity (PA) may need to produce high impacts to be osteogenic. The aim of this study was to identify threshold(s) for defining high impact PA for future analyses in the VIBE (Vertical Impact and Bone in the Elderly) study, based on home recordings with triaxial accelerometers. Recordings were obtained from 19 Master Athlete Cohort (MAC; mean 67.6 years) and 15 Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS; mean 77.7 years) participants. Data cleaning protocols were developed to exclude artifacts. Accelerations expressed in g units were categorized into three bands selected from the distribution of positive Y-axis peak accelerations. Data were available for 6.6 and 4.4 days from MAC and HCS participants respectively, with approximately 14 hr recording daily. Three-fold more 0.5−1.0g impacts were observed in MAC versus HCS, 20-fold more 1.0−1.5g impacts, and 140-fold more impacts ≥ 1.5g. Our analysis protocol successfully distinguishes PA levels in active and sedentary older individuals.
Pirjo Kejonen, Kari Kauranen, Ahti Niinimaa, and Heikki Vanharanta
Balance evaluation and training are typically included in rehabilitation after sport injuries.
To evaluate and compare the maximal velocities and accelerations of balancing movements during 2-leg stance with eyes open and closed. The effect of age on the measured values was also evaluated.
100 healthy, randomly selected subjects (50 men, 50 women; age 31–80 years).
Body-movement values were measured with the Mac Reflex motion-analysis system.
Subjects stood barefoot.
Main Outcome Measures:
ANOVAs were used to explain the body movements. The location of measurement, presence or absence of vision, and subjects’ age and gender were used as explanatory variables.
With eyes closed, all measured body parts had significantly higher maximal velocity and acceleration values than with eyes open. Age seemed to affect the acceleration values.
Visual information was found to significantly influence movement values. Exercises should be done under various conditions to improve standing balance abilities.