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Psychological Functioning as a Moderator of the MAC Approach to Performance Enhancement

Andrew T. Wolanin and Lori A. Schwanhausser

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of subclinical psychological difficulties, as assessed by the Multilevel Classification System for Sport Psychology (MCS-SP; Gardner & Moore, 2004b, 2006), on the efficacy of the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC; Gardner & Moore, 2004a, 2007) performance enhancement intervention. Thirteen collegiate field hockey and volleyball athletes participated in a 7-week MAC protocol, and their results were compared to those of a control group of 7 same-sport athletes. Nonparametric analysis of the data offers additional support for MAC as a strategy for enhancing the athletic performance of collegiate athletes and suggests the importance of the accurate assessment of subclinical psychological difficulties to ensure the successful application of sport psychology interventions. In essence, these results suggest that the presence or absence of subclinical psychological difficulties may serve as a moderating factor in performance enhancement efforts.

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The Impact of an Online Sport Psychology Intervention for Middle-Distance Runners: Should Self-Regulation or Mindfulness Be Prioritized?

Jonathan Lasnier and Natalie Durand-Bush

involves adopting a structured mindset of being aware of the present moment in an accepting, nonjudging, and nonavoiding way ( Kabat-Zinn, 1994 ), has been the focus of interventions for athletes. Examples include the mindfulness–acceptance–commitment (MAC) approach ( Gardner & Moore, 2007 ), mindful sport

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Theoretical and Empirical Developments of the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment(MAC) Approach to Performance Enhancement

Zella E. Moore

As long as athletes strive to attain optimal performance states and consistently reach high performance goals, psychological interventions will be used to assist in the development of skill and the maintenance of performance. In the pursuit of these goals, newer evidence-driven models based on mindfulness- and acceptance-based approaches have been designed to achieve these ends. Based upon questionable efficacy data for traditional psychological skills training procedures that emphasize reduction or control of internal processes, mindfulness- and acceptance-based approaches develop skills of nonjudging mindful awareness, mindful attention, and experiential acceptance to aid in the pursuit of valued goals. The most formalized and researched mindfulness- and acceptance-based approach within sport psychology is the manualized Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) protocol. In the 8 years since the MAC was first developed and presented, and the 5 years since the first publication on the protocol, the MAC program has accumulated a continually growing empirical base for both its underlying theory and intervention efficacy as a performance enhancement intervention. This article reviews the empirical and theoretical foundations of the mindfulness- and acceptance-based approaches in general, and MAC in particular; reviews the accumulated empirical findings in support of the MAC approach for performance enhancement; and presents recent MAC developments and suggested future directions.

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Application of the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) Protocol With an Adolescent Springboard Diver

Lori Schwanhausser

This study presents the case of Steve, an adolescent competitive springboard diver. This diver, referred by his coach, received the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) approach for performance enhancement. The MAC protocol, originally written for an adult population, was used in modified form (under consultation from the authors) to ensure appropriateness for an adolescent population. Conducted in nine individual sessions, the intervention targeted abilities in attention and value-driven behavior to enhance focus, poise, and overall diving performance. Self-report measures of mindfulness and flow, along with objective measures of diving performance were collected pre- and postintervention. Results indicated increases in mindful awareness, mindful attention, experiential acceptance, flow, and diving performance from pre- to postintervention. This case supports the applicability of the MAC protocol with an adolescent athlete population.

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Once You See It, You Can’t Unsee It? Racial Justice Activism and Articulations of Whiteness Among White Collegiate Athlete Activists

Yannick Kluch, Emma Calow, Eric M. Martin, Travis R. Scheadler, Andrew Mac Intosh, and Shannon Jolly

likely to engage in activism ( Mac Intosh et al., 2020 ). Therefore, it is not surprising that most research on activism in sport has focused on the experiences of Black athletes ( Fuller & Agyemang, 2018 ), women ( Cooky, 2017 ), LGBTQ+ individuals ( Anderson et al., 2016 ), athletes with disabilities

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Martial Arts and Combat Sports for Youth: A 10-Year Scoping Review

Alba Iara Cae Rodrigues, Risto Marttinen, and Dominique Banville

Martial arts and combat sports (MA&CS) have been found to foster higher levels of positive outcomes for youth when compared with other forms of physical activities (PA; Binder, 2007 ) and can include youth who are disengaged from traditional sports ( Akehurst et al., 2020 ). However, MA&CS have

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Reliability of Eurofit Physical Fitness Items for Adolescent Males with and without Mental Retardation

Ciaran Mac Donncha, Anthony W.S. Watson, Terence McSweeney, and Daniel J. O’Donovan

The purpose was to examine the reliability of physical fitness items from the Eurofit Test Battery for adolescent males with mild mental retardation (MMR; n = 63, mean IQ = 63.0 ±11.5, mean age = 15.5 ± 1.2) and those without (n = 22, mean age = 15.6 ± 0.6). Males with MMR scored significantly lower (p ≤ .005) than those without on all items except sum of skinfolds, height, and weight. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) ranged from .94 to .99 for males with MMR and .85 to .99 for those without. Percentage error of the mean for all items ranged from 0.5 to 47.5% for participants with MMR and 0.4 to 32.2% for those without. ICCs indicated that Eurofit physical fitness test items are reliable measures for males with and without MMR. However, the percentage error of the mean is quite large for sit-and-reach and 20-m shuttle test (20-MST) items.

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Inverse Relationship Between Physical Activity, Adiposity, and Arterial Stiffness in Healthy Middle-Aged Subjects

Oscar Mac Ananey, Brendan McLoughlin, Ann Leonard, Lewena Maher, Peter Gaffney, Gerard Boran, and Vincent Maher


Several obesity related factors are reported to exacerbate premature arterial stiffening, including inactivity and metabolic disarray. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between physical activity, arterial stiffness and adiposity using objective methods. To further explore the role of adiposity in this complex process, obesity associated anthropometric and humoral biomarkers were measured.


Seventy-nine healthy, lifelong nonsmoking subjects were recruited. Habitual physical activity was measured using accelerometry. Arterial stiffness [augmentation index (AIx) and pulse wave velocity (PWV)] was measured using tonometry. Body composition was estimated using bioimpedence. Adipose associated biomarkers, leptin and adiponectin, were also measured.


Sedentary time was significantly associated with AIx (r = 0.38, P < .001), PWV (r = 0.33, P < .01), body fat composition (r = 0.40, P < .001) and age (r = 0.30, P < .01). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was inversely correlated with AIx (r = –0.28, P < .05), body fat composition (r = –0.30, P < .01), postprandial insulin (r = –0.35, P < .01), and leptin/adiponectin ratio (r = –0.28, P < .05). MVPA, body fat composition, and postprandial insulin remained independent predictors of AIx but not PWV.


The more time healthy individuals spend being sedentary, the greater their body fat and arterial stiffness. Conversely higher activity levels are associated with reduced body fat and less arterial stiffness.

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Twelve-Week Exercise Influences Memory Complaint but not Memory Performance in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Study

Enzo Iuliano, Giovanni Fiorilli, Giovanna Aquino, Alfonso Di Costanzo, Giuseppe Calcagno, and Alessandra di Cagno

0 ( bad ) to 8 ( good ) points. The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) ( Crook, Feher, & Larrabee, 1992 ) is a self-reported questionnaire for the subjective evaluation of the memory complaint. It consists of six questions concerning the subjective perception of the memory efficacy in daily

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Integrating Mindfulness to Reduce Injury Rates in Athletes: A Critically Appraised Topic

Elaine Reiche, Kevin Lam, Francesca Genoese, and Shelby Baez

. • All three studies used the Mindfulness–Acceptance–Commitment (MAC) approach as a mindfulness intervention to reduce injury in soccer athletes. All three studies operationally defined injury, which had to occur during soccer activity (i.e., practice, training, or game). There were slight methodological