In response to the absence of a taxononomical system for the structured assessment, conceptualization, and intervention of athlete-clients, the MCS-SP is a model for the comprehensive evaluation of athlete-clients’ needs, strategies for in-depth case conceptualization, and systematic formulation of the most appropriate type and level of professional service required. This classification system is based on the primary issues, needs, and life circumstances of the athlete-client and the suggested assessment and intervention foci combine the environmental, interpersonal, intrapersonal, behavioral, and performance history/demands that impact athletic clientele. Categories within the taxonomy include Performance Development, Performance Dysfunction, Performance Impairment, and Performance Termination, each of which include two subtypes that further guide the appropriate, ethical, and effective provision of services.
Frank L. Gardner and Zella E. Moore
Andrew T. Wolanin and Lori A. Schwanhausser
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of subclinical psychological difficulties, as assessed by the Multilevel Classification System for Sport Psychology (MCS-SP; Gardner & Moore, 2004b, 2006), on the efficacy of the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC; Gardner & Moore, 2004a, 2007) performance enhancement intervention. Thirteen collegiate field hockey and volleyball athletes participated in a 7-week MAC protocol, and their results were compared to those of a control group of 7 same-sport athletes. Nonparametric analysis of the data offers additional support for MAC as a strategy for enhancing the athletic performance of collegiate athletes and suggests the importance of the accurate assessment of subclinical psychological difficulties to ensure the successful application of sport psychology interventions. In essence, these results suggest that the presence or absence of subclinical psychological difficulties may serve as a moderating factor in performance enhancement efforts.
Jessica M. Lutkenhouse
The present case study illustrates the treatment of a 19-year-old female lacrosse player, classified as experiencing Performance Dysfunction (Pdy) by the Multilevel Classification System for Sport Psychology (MCS-SP). The self-referred collegiate athlete was treated using the manualized Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) protocol (Gardner & Moore, 2004a, 2007). The intervention consisted of eight individual sessions and several follow-up contacts via e-mail. The majority of the sessions addressed clinically related and sport-related concerns, including difficulties in emotion regulation and problematic interpersonal relationships. Based on self-report, coach report, and one outcome assessment measure, the psychological intervention resulted in enhanced overall behavioral functioning and enhanced athletic performance. This case study suggests that following careful case formulation based on appropriate assessment and interview data, the MAC intervention successfully targeted the clearly defined psychological processes underlying the athlete’s performance concerns and personal obstacles, thus resulting in enhanced well-being and athletic performance improvements.
Rory J. Mack, Jeff D. Breckon, Paul D. O’Halloran, and Joanne Butt
for Sport Psychology (MCS-SP) . The Sport Psychologist, 18 , 89 – 109 . doi:10.1123/tsp.18.1.89 10.1123/tsp.18.1.89 Gardner , F.L. , & Moore , Z.E. ( 2006 ). Clinical sport psychology . Champaign, IL : Human Kinetics . 10.5040/9781492595335 Gardner , F.L. , & Moore , Z.E. ( 2012