As mixed martial arts (MMA) has become a more popular and technical sport ( Downey, 2007 ), it has also begun to receive more attention from sport psychologists. Elite fighters in past studies demonstrated the extreme mental stress inherent to the sport and indicated a need for improved skills to
Peter Jensen, Jorge Roman, Barrett Shaft, and Craig Wrisberg
Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) is a relatively new and rapidly growing sport within contemporary athletics yet, to date, it has received relatively little attention in the sport psychology literature. To shed more light on the sport, the aim of the current study was to examine the experiences of MMA fighters during sanctioned competitions. Audio-recorded phenomenological interviews were conducted with seven participants and the transcripts were qualitatively analyzed to identify emerging themes. The findings revealed that the most important aspect of fighters’ experience was the chaotic nature of MMA fights, which participants characterized as “cage reality.” The results also suggested that fighters’ arousal regulation skills are at least as important as their technical skills for performance success. Taken together, the present findings extend previous research on MMA and suggest several implications for sport psychology consultants interested in working with fighters.
Carla A. Santos, Scott Tainsky, K. Alexander Schmidt, and Changsup Shim
To date, scholarly attention to mixed martial arts (MMA) and the Ultimate Fighting Championship organization has been limited. This study sought to address this gap in literature by focusing on the news media’s framing of public officials’ discourse concerning MMA. In so doing, the study addressed the entanglement of news media, sport, and contemporary political maneuvering. Overall, findings suggest two dominant media frames: leveraging of sociopolitical capital to protect societal values and leveraging of sociopolitical capital to advocate for legislation. Specifically, the authors propose that news media have framed and reframed MMA as a succession of moral threats and reassurances that are given voice by public officials in the name of protecting the citizenry.
Jules Woolf, Brennan K. Berg, Brianna L. Newland, and B. Christine Green
Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a rapidly growing combat sport with unique development procedures unlike most traditional sports. In this study the development processes at an exemplar MMA gym were examined. Institutional work theory was used to understand how and why the sport is being developed in this setting. The results provide a microlevel account of the processes and operation of the sport as it develops, and indicate that traditional sport development models may not adequately represent all sports. Subcultural values reflecting what it takes to be a fighter along with a fighter’s duty to the gym influence recruitment, retention, and transition strategies of athletes. Two forms of institutional work, refinement and barrier work, were identified as simultaneously aiding and hindering the development of the sport. Along with furthering institutional theory research, this study contributes to the discourse on alternative ways of sport development for MMA and emergent sports.
Joseph John Matthews and Ceri Nicholas
There is a lack of research documenting the weight-making practices of mixed-martial-arts (MMA) competitors. The purpose of the investigation was to quantify the magnitude and identify the methods of rapid weight loss (RWL) and rapid weight gain (RWG) in MMA athletes preparing for competition. Seven athletes (mean ± SD, age 24.6 ± 3.5 yrs, body mass 69.9 ± 5.7 kg, competitive experience 3.1 ± 2.2 yrs) participated in a repeated-measures design. Measures of dietary intake, urinary hydration status, and body mass were recorded in the week preceding competition. Body mass decreased significantly (p < .0005) from baseline by 5.6 ± 1.4 kg (8 ± 1.8%). During the RWG period (32 ± 1 hr) body mass increased significantly (p < .001) by 7.4 ± 2.8 kg (11.7 ± 4.7%), exceeding RWL. Mean energy and carbohydrate intake were 3176 ± 482 kcal・day-1 and 471 ± 124 g・day-1, respectively. At the official weigh-in 57% of athletes were dehydrated (1033 ± 19 mOsmol・kg-1) and the remaining 43% were severely dehydrated (1267 ± 47 mOsmol・kg-1). Athletes reported using harmful dehydration-based RWL strategies, including sauna (43%) and training in plastic suits (43%). Results demonstrated RWG greater than RWL, this is a novel finding and may be attributable to the 32 hr duration from weigh-in till competition. The observed magnitude of RWL and strategies used are comparable to those which have previously resulted in fatalities. Rule changes which make RWL impractical should be implemented with immediate effect to ensure the health, safety and wellbeing of competitors.
than undoing gender, some heterosexual WMMA athletes may, in fact, overdo gender by oversubscribing to gender norms in their intimate relationships to compensate for feelings of feminine insecurity. WMMA and Physical Feminism Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact combat sport that allows athletes
Ted M. Butryn, Matthew A. Masucci, and jay a. johnson
Long after other professional leagues suspended live events due to public health guidelines related to COVID-19, mixed martial arts (MMA) impresario and Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) president and chief executive officer Dana White continued to brazenly promote UFC 249, scheduled to take
Terry Eddy, Lamar Reams, and Stephen Dittmore
As online business models have evolved, learning what drives users’ consumptive behaviors has gained increasing interest to sport researchers and sport properties. An increasing number of sport properties are expanding, and deriving revenues from, their presence on digital-media platforms (e.g., MLB, NBA, NFL, UFC, WWE, etc.). Of the sport properties mentioned, none are more reliant on digital-media activity than the Ultimate Fighting Championship. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the motivations and related consumption habits of users of non-subscription-based (i.e., free-to-use) online message boards. Findings suggest that message-board users find value in the opportunities for interactivity and that heavy online mixed-martial-arts users watch more events and purchase more merchandise than those who spend less time online.
Oliver R. Barley, Dale W. Chapman, and Chris R. Abbiss
been observed in many combat sports, such as mixed martial arts (MMA), boxing, taekwondo (TKD), karate, wrestling, judo, and kickboxing. 3 – 7 There is a large range of methods employed by combat sports athletes to lose weight, though the most common methods are body fluid manipulation and food
Jack Thomas Sugden
This study began when, after a 4-year absence, the author returned to the United Kingdom in 2017 to find that the popularity of mixed martial arts (MMA) and related participation statistics had ballooned in recent years, as it has done globally ( Delory, Sirost, & Roland, 2018 ). In 2009, the