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Nicholas M. Watanabe, Grace Yan, Brian P. Soebbing and Ann Pegoraro

digital platforms that may well reflect consumer biases and structural inequalities. With this in mind, by relating to the framework of economic discrimination, this study focuses on examining consumer biases among fans of Major League Baseball (MLB) by analyzing the number of followers for every player

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Zachary W. Arth, Darrin J. Griffin and Andrew C. Billings

( Attiah, 2018 ), making a global sport such as baseball an interesting and useful test case. Considering the history of baseball as “America’s pastime,” Major League Baseball (MLB) has, from the beginning, featured players from a host of different countries. At the sport’s inception, a small segment of

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Michael S. Guss, John P. Begly, Austin J. Ramme, David P. Taormina, Michael E. Rettig and John T. Capo

Major League Baseball (MLB) players are highly skilled athletes that require full function of their hands to perform at the highest level, and are at risk for hook of hamate fractures while swinging the bat, or from direct blunt trauma, such as a fall on an outstretched hand or an errant pitch. 1

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Dennis Smart, Jason Winfree and Richard Wolfe

Smart and Wolfe (2003) assessed the concurrent contribution of leadership and human resources to Major League Baseball (MLB) team performance. They found that player resources (defense/pitching and offence/batting) explained 67% of the variance in winning percentage, whereas leadership explained very little (slightly more than 1%) of the variance. In discussing the minimal contribution of leadership to their results, the authors suggested that future studies expand their operationalization of leadership. That is what is done in this study. Finding that the expanded operationalization has limited effect in explaining the contribution of leadership, we take an alternative tack in attempting to understand leadership in MLB. In addition, we estimate a production frontier (based on offensive and defensive resources), determine the efficiency of MLB managers relative to that frontier, and investigate the extent to which manager efficiency can be explained by manager characteristics. Finally, manager characteristics are related to manager compensation.

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Daniel A. Rascher, Chad D. McEvoy, Mark S. Nagel and Matthew T. Brown

Sport teams historically have been reluctant to change ticket prices during the season. Recently, however, numerous sport organizations have implemented variable ticket pricing in an effort to maximize revenues. In Major League Baseball variable pricing results in ticket price increases or decreases depending on factors such as quality of the opponent, day of the week, month of the year, and for special events such as opening day, Memorial Day, and Independence Day. Using censored regression and elasticity analysis, this article demonstrates that variable pricing would have yielded approximately $590,000 per year in additional ticket revenue for each major league team in 1996, ceteris paribus. Accounting for capacity constraints, this amounts to only about a 2.8% increase above what occurs when prices are not varied. For the 1996 season, the largest revenue gain would have been the Cleveland Indians, who would have generated an extra $1.4 million in revenue. The largest percentage revenue gain would have been the San Francisco Giants. The Giants would have seen an estimated 6.7% increase in revenue had they used optimal variable pricing.

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Parbudyal Singh, Allen Sack and Ronald Dick

Over the last three decades, Major League Baseball has often served as a natural setting for the study of discrimination in the workforce. Much of this research has found that salary discrimination has all but disappeared in Major League Baseball. However, an issue that remains unresolved is whether salary discrimination can be found among players who are not eligible for free agency. The important theoretical question raised here is whether market constraints on competition for labor encourage wage discrimination. The purpose of this study was to examine this issue by using recent data. Our results suggest that race is not a significant predictor of compensation, even among players who are not eligible for free agency. Two interpretations of these findings are presented, as well as implications for social policy.

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Kevin J. Christiano

Using data on the salaries of 212 nonpitchers appearing in team lineups on major league baseball’s 1977 Opening Day, this article explores how rewards to veteran professionals are influenced by race. Multiple regression analyses and separate comparisons of regression coefficients for returns to performances by blacks and by whites reveal a single indication of salary discrimination against blacks. White infielders are apparently paid more for each home run they hit than are their black counterparts.

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Ray Over

The relationship between age and the level of performance of major league baseball players was assessed through quasi-experimental designs. Whereas cross-sectional comparisons revealed no differences in batting and fielding statistics between younger and older players, longitudinal analysis showed significant decrements in batting performance as players aged from 30 to 35 years. A decline in performance with age was found even among elite players. Age decrements in achievement need to be studied not only in the context of molar measures such as batting statistics but also at a microanalytic level through reference to component skills. This paper outlines a methodology that can be used in assessing the nature and basis of age decrements in skilled athletic performance.

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Benjamin Margolis and Jane Allyn Piliavin

This research studied stacking—position segregation by race or ethnicity in team sports—in the 1992 Major League Baseball season using a multivariate analysis, with control variables of height, weight, age, power, speed, and skill. The strong relationship between race and centrality found in previous studies was confirmed; African-American players were predominantly in the outfield positions, Latino players in the middle infield positions, and white players in the most central position of catcher, as well as the other infield positions. The multiple regression analyses revealed direct effects of some control variables on centrality; however, only the variable of speed was found significantly to reduce the bivariate relationship between being African-Americans and centrality. A proportion of the variance in allocation of African-Americans to the outfield may thus be due to this job-related ability; the residual race effects, which account for the majority of the explained variance, must at present still be attributed to direct discrimination.

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Shaun M. Anderson and Matthew M. Martin

Comedian Chris Rock explained in a 2015 interview on Real Sports With Bryant Gumbel that Major League Baseball (MLB) lacks a relatability factor in the African American community. He stated that “Black people and baseball ain’t a good match anymore” ( Axisa, 2015 ). Furthermore, he explained that