Sport psychology consulting with athletes who are from an indigenous ethnic group presents some challenges and opportunities that do not typically need to be considered when consulting with nonindigenous athletes. Māori 1 are the indigenous ethnic group of New Zealand. To work as a sport psychology consultant with Māori athletes and indeed any indigenous athletes (e.g., Tahitian, First Nation Canadian Indian) it is important for the sport psychologist to have an understanding of Te Ao o Nga Tāngata Whenua (indigenous worldview) and tīkanga Tāngata Whenua (indigenous cultural practices; Hanrahan, 2004; Schinke & Hanrahan, 2009; Tuhiwai-Smith, 1999). Both research and practice in the social sciences regarding Māori people seek to use a Kaupapa Māori (Māori research and practice platform) approach. Kaupapa Māori attempts to ensure that cultural sensitivity is infused from the conceptualization of an intervention (e.g., psychological skills training, psychological intervention) through to the design, delivery, evaluation, final analysis, and presentation of the intervention or research project. A Kaupapa Māori approach to sport psychology consulting attempts to ensure that key Māori aspirations are honored and celebrated, as many Māori do not wish to follow a non-Māori ideology that depersonalizes the whānau (family) perspective and seeks individuality in its place (Durie, 1998a; Mead, 2003). Therefore, an effective sport psychology consulting program for an athlete who lives her or his life from a Te Ao Māori (Māori worldview) and tīkanga Māori (Māori cultural practices) perspective needs to be constructed as a Māori-for-Māori intervention based within a Kaupapa Māori framework.
Ken Hodge, Lee-Ann Sharp and Justin Ihirangi Heke
Merrill J. Melnick
In order to test Hallinan’s “Anglocentric Hypothesis,” New Zealand head coaches of female netball union teams completed two mailed questionnaires. The statistical analysis was based on 177 European (69.1%) and 79 Maori (30.9%) players. An overall chi-square for Race x Playing Position was nonsignificant, χ2(6) = 8.40. Specifically, Europeans were nonsignificantly overrepresented at center, the most central, highest interacting position. Occupancy of the most tactically important playing position, goal defense, also did not significantly vary by race. Lastly, goal shoot, the position judged by the coaches as being highest in outcome control, also did not favor either race. The results are discussed in terms of the historical record of Maori women’s participation in netball, majority–minority relations in New Zealand, and several methodological issues and concerns that attend “stacking” investigations.
Brendan Hokowhitu and Jay Scherer
In this article we examine a range of media discourses surrounding the continued existence of the Mäori All Blacks, a “racially” selected rugby side, and a specific public controversy that erupted in New Zealand over the selection of former All Black great Christian Cullen for the Mäori All Blacks in 2003. Having never played for the Mäori All Blacks or publicly identified as Mäori, Cullen claimed tangata whenua status via whakapapa (genealogical connection) to his Ngäi Tahu grandfather. We argue that Cullen’s selection emerged as a contentious issue because of the fragmentation that the inclusion of his “Whiteness” within the confines of “an Other” team (i.e., the Mäori All Blacks) brought to bear on traditional colonial binaries of race in the context of late capitalism. Finally, we locate the debates over Cullen’s selection and the continued existence of the Mäori All Blacks in relation to the current racialized political climate that has fueled a Right-wing reaction to the growing Mäori self-determination movement.
Karen L. Moy, Robert K. Scragg, Grant McLean and Harriette Carr
This study validated the short- and long-form New Zealand Physical Activity Questionnaires (NZPAQ-SF and NZPAQ-LF) against heart-rate monitoring (HRM) with individual calibration.
A multiethnic sample (N = 180), age 19 to 86 y, underwent HRM for 3 consecutive days while simultaneously completing physical activity (PA) logs.
Both NZPAQs showed significant (p < .001) correlations to HRM data for brisk walking (r = .27–.43), vigorous-intensity PA (r = .27–.35), and total PA (r = .25; 95% CI, 0.10-0.40), whereas moderate-intensity PA was substantially overreported (mean = 157-199 min). Although the NZPAQ-LF performed better for brisk walking and vigorous-intensity PA, the NZPAQs were strongly correlated (r = .61 and r = .52, respectively, p < .0001). European/Other participants demonstrated the most accurate PA recall of total PA on both NZPAQs (r = .36−.41, p < .01).
The NZPAQs are acceptable instruments for measuring adult PA levels and produce similar results. Substituting culturally specific examples of PAs on the NZPAQs and their accompanying show cards could potentially improve PA recall for Maori and Pacific people.
William R. Sukala, Rachel Page, Chris Lonsdale, Isabelle Lys, David Rowlands, Jeremy Krebs, Murray Leikis and Birinder Singh Cheema
To evaluate the differential effect of 2, group-based exercise modalities on quality of life (QoL) in indigenous Polynesian peoples with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and visceral obesity.
Participants were randomized to resistance training or aerobic training performed 3 times per for 16 weeks. The Short-Form 36 was administered at baseline and post intervention to assess 8 domains and physical and mental component scales (PCS and MCS) of QoL.
With the exception of Mental Health and MCS, all scores were lower at baseline than general population norms. Significant improvements were documented in several QoL scores in each group post intervention. No group × time interactions were noted. Pooled analyses of the total cohort indicated significantly improved Physical Functioning, Role-Physical, Bodily Pain, General Health, Vitality, Role-Emotional, PCS and MCS. Adaptation ranged from 5%−22%, and demonstrated a moderate-to-large effect (Cohen’s d = 0.64−1.29). All measures of QoL increased to near equivalent, or greater than general norms.
Exercise, regardless of specific modality, can improve many aspects of QoL in this population. Robust trials are required to investigate factors mediating improvements in QoL, and create greater advocacy for exercise as a QoL intervention in this and other indigenous populations with T2DM.
Casey Mace Firebaugh, Simon Moyes, Santosh Jatrana, Anna Rolleston and Ngaire Kerse
an initial sample size of 937 and continued for 6 years, with 350 participants in the most recent completed cohort year ( Mace et al., 2016 ; Hayman et al., 2012 ; Dyall et al., 2013 ). In brief, a complete population recruitment of all Māori aged 80–90 years and a single-year birth cohort (1925
Jeremy Hapeta, Rochelle Stewart-Withers and Farah Palmer
in sport-for-development (SFD) research, this study demonstrates how such perspectives can provide important insights for the SFD field. We argue that, from our perspective as Māori (Indigenous people to NZ) scholars, there cannot be a universal theory; however, there is some universality of
Holly Thorpe, Julie Brice and Anna Rolleston
physiological tests (blood work, RMR, DEXA scans, and nutritional diaries) with qualitative interviews, to study the complex pathology of the health condition known as Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S). 2 As the project evolved, culturally important themes emerged from the interviews with Māori and
Casey Mace, Ngaire Kerse, Ralph Maddison, Timothy Olds, Santosh Jatrana, Carol Wham, Mere Kepa, Anna Rolleston, Ruth Teh and Joanna Broad
Little is known about the physical activity levels and behaviors of advanced age New Zealanders.
A cross-sectional analysis of data from Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand (LiLACS NZ), Te Puāwaitanga O Nga Tapuwae Kia ora Tonu, measures of physical activity (PASE) (n = 664, aged 80–90 [n = 254, Māori, aged 82.5(2), n = 410 non-Māori, aged 85(.5)]) was conducted to determine physical activity level (PAL). A substudy (n = 45) was conducted to attain detailed information about PAL and behaviors via the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults (MARCA) and accelerometry. The main study was analyzed by sex for Māori and non-Māori.
Men consistently had higher levels of physical activity than women for all physical activity measures. Sex was significant for different domains of activity.
masculinity: the “Southern Man”; (4) the explicitly hypermasculine theme of the rebranded National Hockey League’s 2005-2006 “Inside the Warrior” advertising campaign; and (5) the iconic Ma¯ori ritualized physical cultural practice, the haka , best known globally through New Zealand’s national rugby team and