cognitive status (MEC), which was assessed every 3 months. The same evaluator’s team performed all of the measurements (single-blinded for the group allocation). The following tests were administered: Mini-Examen Cognoscitivo MEC is the Spanish-adapted version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. This test
Silvia Varela, José M. Cancela, Manuel Seijo-Martinez and Carlos Ayán
Lauren A. Brown, Eric E. Hall, Caroline J. Ketcham, Kirtida Patel, Thomas A. Buckley, David R. Howell and Srikant Vallabhajosula
Context: Sports often involve complex movement patterns, such as turning. Although cognitive load effects on gait patterns are well known, little is known on how it affects biomechanics of turning gait among athletes. Such information could help evaluate how concussion affects turning gait required for daily living and sports. Objective: To determine the effect of a dual task on biomechanics of turning while walking among college athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: Fifty-three participants performed 5 trials of a 20-m walk under single- and dual-task conditions at self-selected speed with a 180° turn at 10-m mark. The cognitive load included subtraction, spelling words backward, or reciting the months backward. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Turn duration, turning velocity, number of steps, SD of turn duration and velocity, and coefficient of variation of turn duration and velocity. Results: Participants turned significantly slower (155.99 [3.71] cm/s vs 183.52 [4.17] cm/s; P < .001) and took longer time to complete the turn (2.63 [0.05] s vs 2.33 [0.04] s; P < .001) while dual tasking, albeit taking similar number of steps to complete the turn. Participants also showed more variability in turning time under the dual-task condition (SD of turn duration = 0.39 vs 0.31 s; P = .004). Conclusions: Overall, college athletes turned slower and showed more variability during turning gait while performing a concurrent cognitive dual-task turning compared with single-task turning. The slower velocity increased variability may be representative of specific strategy of turning gait while dual tasking, which may be a result of the split attention to perform the cognitive task. The current study provides descriptive values of absolute and variability turning gait parameters for sports medicine personnel to use while they perform their concussion assessments on their college athletes.
Juliana Hotta Ansai, Larissa Pires de Andrade, Marcele Stephanie de Souza Buto, Verena de Vassimon Barroso, Ana Claudia Silva Farche, Paulo Giusti Rossi and Anielle Cristhine de Medeiros Takahashi
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the addition of a dual task to multicomponent training on cognition of active older adults. Eighty physically active older adults were divided into an intervention group (IG) and a control group (CG). Both groups performed multicomponent training over 12 weeks. The IG simultaneously performed exercises and cognitive tasks. The Mini-Mental State Examination, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and the Clock Drawing Test were used for cognitive assessments. The Timed Up and Go Test associated with a cognitive task was used for dual-task assessment. Significant interactions were not observed between groups in terms of the cognitive variables or the dual-task performance. An interaction was observed only for Timed Up and Go Test performance, which was better in the CG than in the IG. Active older adults showed no improvement in cognition following the addition of the dual task to the multicomponent training.
S.E. Barber, A. Forster and K.M. Birch
Physical activity is important for maintaining independence and quality of life in older people living in care homes. Little is known about patterns of physical activity or sedentary behavior in this population.
Thirty-three care home residents (82.6 ± 9.2 years) wore an ActiGraph GTX3 accelerometer for seven days, which provided minutes of sedentary behavior and low, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Participants undertook the Mini-Mental State Examination and care staff reported activities of daily living (Barthel index) and functional ambulation classification (FAC) for each participant.
Participants spent on average 79% of their day sedentary, 14% in low, 6% in light, and 1% in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Activity levels did not significantly differ between days or hours of the day (P > .05).
Levels of physical activity were very low and time being sedentary was high. This study can inform physical activity and sedentary behavior interventions for care homes’ residents.
Ching-Yi Wang, Ming-Hsia Hu, Hui-Ya Chen and Ren-Hau Li
To determine the test–retest reliability and criterion validity of self-reported function in mobility and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in older adults, a convenience sample of 70 subjects (72.9 ± 6.6 yr, 34 male) was split into able and disabled groups based on baseline assessment and into consistently able, consistently disabled, and inconsistent based on repeat assessments over 2 weeks. The criterion validities of the self-reported measures of mobility domain and IADL-physical subdomain were assessed with concurrent baseline measures of 4 mobility performances, and that of the self-reported measure of IADL-cognitive subdomain, with the Mini-Mental State Examination. Test–retest reliability was moderate for the mobility, IADL-physical, and IADL-cognitive subdomains (κ = .51–.66). Those who reported being able at baseline also performed better on physical- and cognitive-performance tests. Those with variable performance between test occasions tended to report inconsistently on repeat measures in mobility and IADL-cognitive, suggesting fluctuations in physical and cognitive performance.
Thais R.S. Paulo, Sheilla Tribess, Jeffer Eidi Sasaki, Joilson Meneguci, Cristiane A. Martins, Ismael F. Freitas Jr., Vicente Romo-Perez and Jair S. Virtuoso Jr.
The aim of this study was to examine the association of physical activity with depression and cognition deficit, separately and combined, in Brazilian older adults. We analyzed data from 622 older adults. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale, while cognitive deficit was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to assess associations of depression and cognitive deficit with sociodemographic, health, and behavioral variables. Prevalence of physical inactivity (< 150 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/week), depression, and cognitive deficit were 35.7%, 37.4%, and 16.7%. Physical inactivity was associated with depression (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.14–2.94) and with depression and cognitive deficit combined (OR: 4.23, 95% CI: 2.01–8.91). Physically inactive participants were also more likely to present limitations in orientation and language functions. Physical inactivity was associated with depression and also with depression and cognitive deficit combined in older adults.
Barbara Resnick and Elizabeth Galik
The purpose of this study was to develop and test a measure of physical activity for residents in long-term-care facilities, the Physical Activity Survey in Long-Term Care (PAS-LTC). Sixty-six activities are included in the PAS-LTC: routine physical activity, personal-care activities, structured exercise, recreational activities, caretaking activities, and repetitive activities. The study included 13 residents in a long-term-care facility, most of whom were women (62%), with an average age of 84 years (± 6.0) and an average Mini Mental State Examination score of 6 (± 6.9). There was evidence of interrater reliability of the PAS-LTC with intraclass correlations of .83-.94. There was some evidence of validity of the measure with statistically significant correlations between PAS-LTC recorded during the evening and night shifts and the number of counts of activity per the ActiGraph (r = .60 and r = .57, respectively, p < .05) and the calories estimated (r = .58 and r = .60, respectively, p < .05). The PAS-LTC completed during the day shift and total activity based on the PAS-LTC showed nonsignificant correlations of .40 or greater with the ActiGraph activity counts and calories.
Erin Gemmill, Constance M. Bayles, Kathleen McTigue, William Satariano, Ravi Sharma and John W. Wilson
Adherence to protocols of accelerometer use by participants of research studies is crucial to ensure the most accurate measure of their physical activity.
We used data from a study of 201 individuals 65 years of age and older to examine whether aging effects on physical and cognitive health limit the ability of an older adult to be adherent to an accelerometer protocol.
A comparison of participants who met the adherent person criteria with those who did not showed that the percentage of participants whose income is $20,000 or greater, the percentage of participants who reported white race, and the mean number of school grades completed were significantly different between the 2 groups. Logistic regression analyses showed that the best multivariate model to predict being a valid person included Instrumental Activities of Daily Living score, while the best multivariate model to predict being an adherent person included Modified Guralnik Lower Body Score and Mini-Mental State Examination Score.
This study found that certain measures of physical and cognitive functioning were the best predictors of adherence to an accelerometer protocol among older adults.
Sungchul Lee, Sangyoon Lee, Seongryu Bae, Kazuhiro Harada, Songee Jung, Keitaro Makino and Hiroyuki Shimada
then followed monthly and monitored for inclusion in the LTCI system for the next 4 years. We excluded disability using the public Japanese LTCI system, history of Parkinson’s disease, dementia, stroke, missing data, and Mini-Mental State Examination scores <18 points ( Lee et al., 2015 ) at baseline
Juliana Hotta Ansai, Larissa Pires de Andrade, Paulo Giusti Rossi, Theresa Helissa Nakagawa, Francisco Assis Carvalho Vale and José Rubens Rebelatto
. The volunteers were divided into three groups based on their cognitive profile. A neurologist physician professor confirmed the diagnosis of PC, MCI, or AD. Older people with a normal Mini-Mental State Examination score according to years of schooling ( Brucki, Nitrini, & Caramelli, 2003 ) and who did