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Jingmei Dong, Peijie Chen, Qing Liu, Ru Wang, Weihua Xiao and Yajun Zhang

Purpose:

To examine the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and the combined effect of glutamine supplementation and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) on the function of neutrophils induced by overtraining.

Methods:

Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: control group (C), overtraining group (E), DPI-administration group (D), glutamine-supplementation group (G), and combined DPI and glutamine group (DG). Blood was sampled from the orbital vein after rats were trained on treadmill for 11 wk. Cytokine and lipid peroxidation in blood plasma were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The colocalization between gp91phox and p47phox of the NADPH oxidase was detected using immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. The activity of NADPH oxidase was assessed by chemiluminescence. Neutrophils’ respiratory burst and phagocytosis function were measured by flow cytometry.

Results:

NADPH oxidase was activated by overtraining. Cytokine and lipid peroxidation in blood plasma and the activity of NADPH oxidase were markedly increased in Group E compared with Group C. Neutrophil function was lower in Group E than Group C. Both lower neutrophils function and higher ROS production were reversed in Group DG. The glutamine and DPI interference alone in Group D and Group G was less effective than DPI and glutamine combined in group DG.

Conclusion:

Activation of NADPH oxidase is responsible for the production of superoxide anions, which leads to excessive ROS and is related to the decrease in neutrophil function induced by overtraining. The combined DPI administration and glutamine supplementation reversed the decreased neutrophil function after overtraining.

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Jason P. Brandenburg and Luisa V. Giles

is uncertain. The lower blood lactate values post-TT in 4DAY could be due to a polyphenol-induced increase in blood flow ( Rodriguez-Mateos et al., 2014 ). Polyphenols have been shown to inhibit nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase—an enzyme that reduces NO bioavailability

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Ryan S. Garten, Matthew C. Scott, Tiffany M. Zúñiga, Austin C. Hogwood, R. Carson Fralin and Jennifer Weggen

Heart Circ Physiol . 2003 ; 285 ( 6 ): H2290 – H2297 . PubMed ID: 12958034 doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00515.2003 10.1152/ajpheart.00515.2003 12958034 13. Hwang J , Ing MH , Salazar A , et al . Pulsatile versus oscillatory shear stress regulates NADPH oxidase subunit expression: implication for