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Jennifer Beck, Bernie Goldfine, Susan Whitlock, Todd Seidler and Jin Wang

Currently more than 1,000 NCAA member institutions have intercollegiate athletic programs. The athletic teams from all of these institutions must travel in order to participate in sanctioned competitions as well as some training sessions. Transportation methods vary and consist of airplanes, chartered buses, 12 and 15-passenger vans, university-owned vehicles, minibuses, and student-athlete vehicles. The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine and compare the current transportation practices of Division I, Division II, and Division III teams, in particular those transportation practices involving teams for sports which are typically non-revenue producing. A total of 120 colleges were randomly selected for this study, and 43% of these institutions responded. Results indicate that many teams are not using the safest methods to transport their athletes. Coaches are frequently called upon as drivers and 15-passenger vans are used at a high rate. Schools also failed to implement the majority of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) recommendations for the transportation of student-athletes.

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Shaun C. Tyrance, Henry L. Harris and Phyllis Post

This study examined the relationship between athletic identity, race, gender, sport, and expectation to play professionally and career planning attitudes (career optimism, career adaptability, and career knowledge) among NCAA Division I college student-athletes. Participants of this study consisted of 538 Division I student-athletes from four Bowl Championship Series institutions. Results of this study found that Division I student-athletes with higher athletic identities had lower levels of career optimism; Division I student-athletes who participated in revenue-producing sports had lower levels of career optimism; and student-athletes with a higher expectation to play professional sports were more likely to be optimistic regarding their future career and displayed higher athletic identities. Statistically significant findings indicated the following gender differences: male Division I student-athletes believed they had a better understanding of the job market and employment trends; males had more career optimism; and females had higher levels of athletic identity than their male counterparts. Implications for counseling student-athletes are addressed.

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Khirey B. Walker, Chad Seifried, Brian Soebbing and Kwame Agyemang

National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) formally defines what behavior is designated as misconduct for member organizations and the public because it remains interested in “managing issues and crises” to achieve and maintain “stability, profitability, and popularity, as well as recovering from

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Julia Allain, Gordon A. Bloom and Wade D. Gilbert

. Participants were required to meet the following criteria: coaching for a total of 15 or more years, 10 or more years of experience as a head coach at the National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) level or higher (professional hockey), and a career winning percentage over .500 as a head coach in the

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Calvin Nite and Marvin Washington

and television has been checkered with fear, uncertainty, and heated battles over the National Collegiate Athletic Association’s (NCAA) regulative authority. The case of the NCAA and its regulation of televised college football highlights both the success and failure of policy in addressing innovation

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Craig A. Wrisberg and Johannes Raabe

as a faculty member (i.e., teaching, research, mentoring graduate students), I was on retainer with the athletic department at the university. The institution was a member of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I and of one of the Power-5 athletic conferences. My task was to

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Jason D. Vescovi and Devon H. Frayne

Purpose:

To examine locomotor demands and metabolic-power characteristics of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) field hockey matches.

Methods:

Using a cross-sectional design, global positioning system (GPS) technology tracked Division I field hockey players from 6 teams during 1 regular-season match (68 player observations). An ANOVA compared locomotor demands and metabolic-power characteristics among positions. Paired t tests compared dependent variables between halves.

Results:

Defenders played 5−6 min more than midfielders, whereas midfielders played 6−7 min more than forwards. Defenders covered less relative distance (98 m/min) than forwards and midfielders (110−111 m/min), as well as more low-intensity running than forwards and less high-intensity running than midfielders. Lower mean metabolic power (9.3 W/kg) was observed for defenders than forwards and midfielders (10.4 W/kg). There was no difference in playing time between halves; however, all 3 positions had a reduction in relative distance (7−9%) and mean metabolic power (8−9%) during the second half.

Conclusions:

Despite more playing time, defenders covered less relative distance and had lower mean metabolic power than other positions. Moderate-intensity, high-intensity, and sprint distance were similar between positions, highlighting the greater relative demands on forwards because they tended to have the least amount of playing time. The reduction of key metrics during the second half was similar among positions and warrants further investigation. These initial results can be used to design position-specific drills or create small-sided games that replicate match demands for NCAA athletes, thus helping establish strategies for developing physiological ability of players at this level.

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Jed A. Diekfuss and Louisa D. Raisbeck

The primary purpose of this study was to describe the focus of attention NCAA Division 1 golfers use during practice and competition. A secondary purpose was to determine who was most influential in the focus of attention strategies adopted by NCAA Division 1 golfers. We collected observational data by attending practice sessions, conducting semistructured interviews, and administering guided focus groups. Results revealed two major themes pertaining to the focus of attention adopted by our sample of NCAA Division 1 golfers: situational focus and reactivity focus. Situational focus refers to the focus used within a specific context, and reactivity focus refers to the focus golfers adopt because of a psychological state. Further, our results revealed the importance of esteemed individuals’ instruction on the development of attentional focus strategies. Parents, coaches, and popular media were highly influential in our sample of NCAA Division 1 golfers’ selection of attentional focus strategies.

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Dorothy J. Lovett and Carla D. Lowry

This study sought to describe the degree of success of a basic tenet of liberal feminism in providing equal opportunity as defined by female representation in the NCAA. The study showed how the NCAA is reflective of an association that is an instrument of domination. The purpose of the study was to determine the number of women holding leadership positions at the campus level in NCAA labeled functions. These data were compared with similar 1987-88 data. In addition, male and female representatives at the national level on committees and councils were compared to similar data collected in 1987-88. A gender comparison was made with the 1992-93 data involving NCAA national committees. The data revealed that there were significantly more males than females on NCAA national committees in 1992-93. The results of χ2 tests between years and female representation revealed no significant increase in female representation between 1987 and 1993; however, there was an increase in female representation beyond the mandated percentage required by NCAA bylaws.

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Heather J. Lawrence, Andy J. Fodor, Chris L. Ullrich, Nick R. Kopka and Peter J. Titlebaum

Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) football teams took the field of play ( National Collegiate Athletic Association, n.d. ). As compared with their football bowl subdivision (FBS) counterparts, FCS teams have less ability to generate national media attention, fewer