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An Exploratory Study of the Transportation Practices Utilized by NCAA Universities: Preventative Measures for Coaches and Administrators

Jennifer Beck, Bernie Goldfine, Susan Whitlock, Todd Seidler, and Jin Wang

Currently more than 1,000 NCAA member institutions have intercollegiate athletic programs. The athletic teams from all of these institutions must travel in order to participate in sanctioned competitions as well as some training sessions. Transportation methods vary and consist of airplanes, chartered buses, 12 and 15-passenger vans, university-owned vehicles, minibuses, and student-athlete vehicles. The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine and compare the current transportation practices of Division I, Division II, and Division III teams, in particular those transportation practices involving teams for sports which are typically non-revenue producing. A total of 120 colleges were randomly selected for this study, and 43% of these institutions responded. Results indicate that many teams are not using the safest methods to transport their athletes. Coaches are frequently called upon as drivers and 15-passenger vans are used at a high rate. Schools also failed to implement the majority of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) recommendations for the transportation of student-athletes.

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Predicting Positive Career Planning Attitudes Among NCAA Division I College Student-Athletes

Shaun C. Tyrance, Henry L. Harris, and Phyllis Post

This study examined the relationship between athletic identity, race, gender, sport, and expectation to play professionally and career planning attitudes (career optimism, career adaptability, and career knowledge) among NCAA Division I college student-athletes. Participants of this study consisted of 538 Division I student-athletes from four Bowl Championship Series institutions. Results of this study found that Division I student-athletes with higher athletic identities had lower levels of career optimism; Division I student-athletes who participated in revenue-producing sports had lower levels of career optimism; and student-athletes with a higher expectation to play professional sports were more likely to be optimistic regarding their future career and displayed higher athletic identities. Statistically significant findings indicated the following gender differences: male Division I student-athletes believed they had a better understanding of the job market and employment trends; males had more career optimism; and females had higher levels of athletic identity than their male counterparts. Implications for counseling student-athletes are addressed.

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A Comparative Framing Analysis of Major Violations in the National Collegiate Athletic Association

Khirey B. Walker, Chad Seifried, Brian Soebbing, and Kwame Agyemang

National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) formally defines what behavior is designated as misconduct for member organizations and the public because it remains interested in “managing issues and crises” to achieve and maintain “stability, profitability, and popularity, as well as recovering from

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Successful High-Performance Ice Hockey Coaches’ Intermission Routines and Situational Factors That Guide Implementation

Julia Allain, Gordon A. Bloom, and Wade D. Gilbert

. Participants were required to meet the following criteria: coaching for a total of 15 or more years, 10 or more years of experience as a head coach at the National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) level or higher (professional hockey), and a career winning percentage over .500 as a head coach in the

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Stress and Burnout Experienced by Intercollegiate Swimming Head Coaches

Robert T. Pearson, Timothy Baghurst, and Mwarumba Mwavita

counterparts. Methods Participants In total, 223 (male = 179; female = 49) head intercollegiate swimming coaches participated in the study, which represented 40.5% of the 573 head intercollegiate swimming coaches working within the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) at the time of collection. This

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Institutional Adaptation to Technological Innovation: Lessons From the NCAA’s Regulation of Football Television Broadcasts (1938–1984)

Calvin Nite and Marvin Washington

and television has been checkered with fear, uncertainty, and heated battles over the National Collegiate Athletic Association’s (NCAA) regulative authority. The case of the NCAA and its regulation of televised college football highlights both the success and failure of policy in addressing innovation

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Phenomenological Consulting: Long-Term Mental Training With an Elite College Football Place Kicker

Craig A. Wrisberg and Johannes Raabe

as a faculty member (i.e., teaching, research, mentoring graduate students), I was on retainer with the athletic department at the university. The institution was a member of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I and of one of the Power-5 athletic conferences. My task was to

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Charting a New Path: Regulating College Athlete Name, Image and Likeness After NCAA v. Alston Through Collective Bargaining

Alicia Jessop, Thomas A. Baker III, Joanna Wall Tweedie, and John T. Holden

On June 21, 2021, the U.S. Supreme Court announced a unanimous 9-0 decision in NCAA v. Alston , confirming that education-related restraints imposed on college athletes by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) would no longer be shielded from antitrust law scrutiny. In response to

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#NCAAInclusion: Using Social Media to Engage NCAA Student-Athletes in Strategic Efforts to Promote Diversity and Inclusion

Yannick Kluch and Amy S. Wilson

Like every morning for the past three months, Jamie was greeted by the colorful wall of athletics logos surrounding the shiny blue disc at the main entrance to the headquarters of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), a majestic glass building surrounded by an idyllic canal in

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Motion Characteristics of Division I College Field Hockey: Female Athletes in Motion (FAiM) Study

Jason D. Vescovi and Devon H. Frayne


To examine locomotor demands and metabolic-power characteristics of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) field hockey matches.


Using a cross-sectional design, global positioning system (GPS) technology tracked Division I field hockey players from 6 teams during 1 regular-season match (68 player observations). An ANOVA compared locomotor demands and metabolic-power characteristics among positions. Paired t tests compared dependent variables between halves.


Defenders played 5−6 min more than midfielders, whereas midfielders played 6−7 min more than forwards. Defenders covered less relative distance (98 m/min) than forwards and midfielders (110−111 m/min), as well as more low-intensity running than forwards and less high-intensity running than midfielders. Lower mean metabolic power (9.3 W/kg) was observed for defenders than forwards and midfielders (10.4 W/kg). There was no difference in playing time between halves; however, all 3 positions had a reduction in relative distance (7−9%) and mean metabolic power (8−9%) during the second half.


Despite more playing time, defenders covered less relative distance and had lower mean metabolic power than other positions. Moderate-intensity, high-intensity, and sprint distance were similar between positions, highlighting the greater relative demands on forwards because they tended to have the least amount of playing time. The reduction of key metrics during the second half was similar among positions and warrants further investigation. These initial results can be used to design position-specific drills or create small-sided games that replicate match demands for NCAA athletes, thus helping establish strategies for developing physiological ability of players at this level.