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Nicole T. Gabana, Jeffrey B. Ruser, Mariya A. Yukhymenko-Lescroart, and Jenelle N. Gilbert

the United States has resulted in NCAA athletes reporting higher levels of sadness, a sense of loss, heightened anxiety, sleep difficulties, and lack of motivation ( NCAA, 2020 ). Notably, one in 12 college athletes surveyed reported depressive symptoms so severe, they found it difficult to function

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Scott A. Graupensperger, Alex J. Benson, and M. Blair Evans

and response options were reviewed by a focus group and, in turn, the MPR-paradigm was pilot tested. The primary investigator conducted an in-depth focus group discussion with seven recently graduated NCAA athletes who each played a different sport. Focus group members discussed scenarios, both risky

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E. Woodrow Eckard

The standard evaluations of NCAA student-athlete graduation rates involve comparisons with rates for the general student body. The latter rates as actually calculated, however, include a significant number of part-time students at many schools. This is problematic because athletes must be full-time, and should be compared with other full-time students. The downward “part-timer bias” in the student body rate distorts the comparison, making the relative graduation rates for athletes appear more favorable. Example calculations demonstrate that relative rates for major college football and men’s basketball players are substantially worse when the bias is removed.

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Erika D. Van Dyke, Aaron Metzger, and Sam J. Zizzi

Little research has integrated mindfulness and perfectionism, particularly within sports wherein athletes are judged on performance to a standard of perfection. The current study had two primary aims: (a) to explore profiles of mindfulness and perfectionism among intercollegiate gymnasts through a person-centered approach and (b) to analyze differences in objective performance across the resulting profiles. The analytic sample consisted of 244 NCAA gymnasts who completed self-report measures of mindfulness and perfectionism. Competitive performance records (i.e., national qualifying scores) were then gathered for participating gymnasts. Cluster analyses revealed a three-cluster solution; however, significant performance differences were not observed across the three profiles due to lower than desired power. Small to moderate effect size estimates provided some evidence that perfectionism may be adaptive to gymnastics performance. Elite-level athletes were represented across three distinct profiles, suggesting that more than one profile of characteristics may be adaptive for reaching high levels of performance.

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Karen L. Hartman

This autoethnographic account analyzes the culture of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), its rules, and the 1-year scholarship through a personal narrative of the author’s experience as a Division I basketball player who had her 1-year scholarship revoked before her senior year. The author seeks to provide a voice of resistance through an experience few have access to, as well as respond to calls for more communication scholars to use personal narrative research in sport. This scholarly commentary concludes with recommendations to change the culture of the NCAA to make it more amenable to multiyear scholarships and student-athlete rights: Communication between the NCAA and institutional members must continue to advocate for student-athlete rights; if schools are not going to offer multiyear scholarships, the NCAA needs to change the deadline for when schools must notify of nonrenewal; and student-athletes need to be encouraged to join associations that support their rights.

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Fallon R. Mitchell, Sara Santarossa, and Sarah J. Woodruff

The present study aimed to explore the interactions and influences that occurred on Twitter after Joey Julius’s (NCAA athlete, Penn State Football) and Mike Marjama’s (MLB player, Seattle Mariners) eating-disorder (ED) diagnoses were revealed. Corresponding with the publicizing of each athlete’s ED, all publicly tagged Twitter media using @joey_julius, Joey Julius, @MMarjama, and Mike Marjama were collected using Netlytic software and analyzed. Text analysis revealed that the conversation was supportive and focused on feelings and size. Social network analysis, based on 5 network properties, showed that Joey Julius invoked a larger conversation but that both athletes’ conversations were single sided. Athlete advocacy on social media should be further explored, as it may contribute to changing societal opinion regarding social issues such as EDs.

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Rachel A. Hildebrand, Bridget Miller, Aric Warren, Deana Hildebrand, and Brenda J. Smith

Increasing evidence indicates that compromised vitamin D status, as indicated by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D), is associated with decreased muscle function. The purpose of this study was to determine the vitamin D status of collegiate athletes residing in the southern U.S. and its effects on muscular strength and anaerobic power. Collegiate athletes (n = 103) from three separate NCAA athletic programs were recruited for the study. Anthropometrics, vitamin D and calcium intake, and sun exposure data were collected along with serum 25-OH D and physical performance measures (Vertical Jump Test, Shuttle Run Test, Triple Hop for Distance Test and the 1 Repetition Maximum Squat Test) to determine the influence of vitamin D status on muscular strength and anaerobic power. Approximately 68% of the study participants were vitamin D adequate (>75 nmol/L), whereas 23% were insufficient (75–50 nmol/L) and 9%, predominantly non-Caucasian athletes, were deficient (<50 nmol/L). Athletes who had lower vitamin D status had reduced performance scores (p < .01) with odds ratios of 0.85 on the Vertical Jump Test, 0.82 on the Shuttle Run Test, 0.28 on the Triple Hop for Distance Test, and 0.23 on the 1 RM Squat Test. These findings demonstrate that even NCAA athletes living in the southern US are at risk for vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and that maintaining adequate vitamin D status may be important for these athletes to optimize their muscular strength and power.

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Jason D. Vescovi and Devon H. Frayne

Purpose:

To examine locomotor demands and metabolic-power characteristics of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) field hockey matches.

Methods:

Using a cross-sectional design, global positioning system (GPS) technology tracked Division I field hockey players from 6 teams during 1 regular-season match (68 player observations). An ANOVA compared locomotor demands and metabolic-power characteristics among positions. Paired t tests compared dependent variables between halves.

Results:

Defenders played 5−6 min more than midfielders, whereas midfielders played 6−7 min more than forwards. Defenders covered less relative distance (98 m/min) than forwards and midfielders (110−111 m/min), as well as more low-intensity running than forwards and less high-intensity running than midfielders. Lower mean metabolic power (9.3 W/kg) was observed for defenders than forwards and midfielders (10.4 W/kg). There was no difference in playing time between halves; however, all 3 positions had a reduction in relative distance (7−9%) and mean metabolic power (8−9%) during the second half.

Conclusions:

Despite more playing time, defenders covered less relative distance and had lower mean metabolic power than other positions. Moderate-intensity, high-intensity, and sprint distance were similar between positions, highlighting the greater relative demands on forwards because they tended to have the least amount of playing time. The reduction of key metrics during the second half was similar among positions and warrants further investigation. These initial results can be used to design position-specific drills or create small-sided games that replicate match demands for NCAA athletes, thus helping establish strategies for developing physiological ability of players at this level.

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Zack P. Pedersen

National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athlete at the University of Kentucky (not coincidentally, the book is published by his alma mater’s university press), his entrepreneurial ventures, and his time spent in Kentucky politics. However, rooted in every chapter and engrained in every life

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Ioanna K. Bolia, Jennifer A. Bell, Hyunwoo P. Kang, Aryan Haratian, Laith K. Hasan, Michael B. Eppler, Russ Romano, James E. Tibone, Seth C. Gamradt, and Alexander E. Weber

evaluate NCAA athletes as these athletes are earlier in their careers and early diagnoses can prevent long-term pathology. Given that the pathophysiology of FAIS is not fully understood, one or more injuries to the hip could result in alteration of the joint mechanics and contribute the development of this