This paper examines the determinants of live game Regional Sport Network (RSN) average annual ratings in three major North American professional sport leagues: Major League Baseball (MLB), the National Basketball Association (NBA), and the National Hockey League (NHL). A conceptual model of the determinants of club RSN ratings is constructed based on a marketing management framework. Five categories of determinants are identified: Product-Club, Product-Player, Brand-Club, Brand-Player, and Place. Data were collected over a 12-year period (1999–2011) for a total of 46 independent variables. The list of independent variables was reduced to 16 factors and a proxy variable for each of the factors identified. Univariate and multivariate analyses were undertaken. Strong support for the each of the five categories in the conceptual model was found for the pooled sample of all three leagues. Results at the individual league level revealed league differences in the relative importance of individual variables. Implications for future research and practice are presented.
George Foster, Norm O’Reilly, Carlos Shimizu, Neal Khosla, and Ryan Murray
jay johnson and Adam Ehsan Ali
Omar Mitchell, the vice-president of corporate social responsibility (CSR) for the National Hockey League (NHL). The NHL has been one of the more active “green” leagues over the last number of years in North America, making environmental responsibility and awareness a key tenet of its CSR plans. In
John Wong and Scott R. Jedlicka
In 1966, the National Hockey League (NHL) expanded from six to twelve teams. In doing so, the league also expanded its markets—which, prior to World War II, were based in the two largest Canadian cities (Montreal and Toronto) as well as major cities (Boston, New York, Chicago, and Detroit) in the
Alexander S.D. Gamble, Jessica L. Bigg, Tyler F. Vermeulen, Stephanie M. Boville, Greg S. Eskedjian, Sebastian Jannas-Vela, Jamie Whitfield, Matthew S. Palmer, and Lawrence L. Spriet
; Palmer et al., 2010 ) and professional players ( Emerson et al., 2017 ; Godek et al., 2006 ). However, it is reasonable to speculate that major JR, American Hockey League (AHL), and National Hockey League (NHL) players may differ in age, body size, skill level, and team resources, which may affect
Stephen P. Andon and Davis W. Houck
This analysis examines the commodification of the 2009 National Hockey League (NHL) Winter Classic, a professional outdoor hockey game staged in Chicago, IL, at Wrigley Field. Given the dynamic relationship between sports and corporate sponsorship, ratings, merchandise, and broadcast-rights contracts, it is critical to understand how the principles of late capitalism influence both the sport and fans in increasingly controlling ways. As a result, this study combines an understanding of the principles of production and consumption, examining how economic principles manifested themselves in the commodification of nostalgic elements and made the NHL Winter Classic the sport’s most lucrative event in decades.
Jay Scherer and Steven J. Jackson
Despite the historic and popular alignment of ice hockey with Canadian identity, the public subsidization of National Hockey League (NHL) franchises remains a highly contentious public issue in Canada. In January 2000 the Canadian government announced a proposal to subsidize Canadian-based NHL franchises. The proposal, however, received such a hostile national response that only three days after its release an embarrassed Liberal government was forced to rescind it. This article explores how Canadian anglophone newspapers mediated the NHL subsidy debate and emerged as critical sites through which several interrelated issues were contested: the subsidization of NHL franchises, competing discourses of Canadian national identity, and the broader political-economic and sociocultural impacts of the Canadian government’s adherence to a neoliberal agenda.
Katharine Kelley, Michelle G. Harrolle, and Jonathan M. Casper
Game day spending is critical for National Hockey League (NHL) teams’ profitability as nearly half the NHL franchises generate more than two-thirds of their annual income from ticket sales. The purpose of our study was to analyze financial data for 123 regular season home games to understand the influence of day of week, special promotions, opponent, month in season, time of game, and season on ticket sales, merchandise per cap sales, and food and beverage per cap sales for a NHL team. Ordinary Least Squares regression results revealed that the game day variables included in the models explained 52% of the variance in ticket sales, 70% of the variance in merchandise per cap sales, and 48% of the variance in food and beverage per cap sales (p < .05). Findings provide practical implications for teams who hope to maximize game day revenue.
Julie Burns and Lynn Dugan
For many professional sports, nutrition is not recognized as an important component of the team's training program. The implementation of a nutrition program for one professional hockey team has had positive results. Players who had been unable to maintain their weight during the season can now maintain their weight and be prepared for the playoffs. Others have improved their endurance with proper fluid and carbohydrate replacement. Working with the entire time—coaching staff, trainers and players—has led to the success of this program.
Jeremy N. Cohen, Kyle M.A. Thompson, Veronica K. Jamnik, Norman Gledhill, and Jamie F. Burr
players at different levels, with National Hockey League (NHL) caliber players possessing higher skill and power-related attributes. It has been demonstrated that variables related to physical development and peak leg power help predict NHL draft selection order, and these outcomes are linked to career
Melissa Davies, Michael L. Naraine, and Brandon Mastromartino
some of the premier leagues such as the National Basketball Association and Major League Soccer. But its primary source of business came from teams in the National Hockey League (NHL), and the firm had been getting more hockey related business due to the company’s ties to the sport of ice hockey