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Mark A. Diehl, Joris Drayer, and Joel G. Maxcy

This study examines the determinants of regular season National Football League (NFL) ticket prices on the secondary, or resale, market. Prices in the secondary market are dynamic and thus particularly useful for evaluating the demand for live NFL contests. A rich dataset is employed that contains information about all transactions conducted by a prominent ticketing site during a full NFL season and allows for a comprehensive investigation of the components of demand in this market. Included in the analysis is a first look at the demand for different seating locations within the stadium. The revealed determinants of demand for resale tickets were largely consistent with studies of the primary market; however, there are notable differences in spectators’ preferences for contest characteristics and uncertainty of outcome across the seating categories. The evidence also suggests that while hometown fans are the primary participants, visiting teams are likely active in the resale market.

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Kathryn L. Heinze and Di Lu

proactive attempts to lead or control institutional change. To enhance understanding of how organizational responses shift, we use a longitudinal case study of the National Football League’s (NFL) responses to institutional change around the issue of player concussions. Concussion attributable to sports has

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Jeremy J. Foreman, Joshua S. Bendickson, and Birton J. Cowden

Rule changes are not uncommon in most professional sports, and scholars often study the effects of such changes. Such is true in the National Football League (NFL), where scholars explored how rule changes affect individuals who work for NFL organizations, as well as rule changes that affect team

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Michael Mondello, Brian M. Mills, and Scott Tainsky

Like most North American professional sports leagues, most National Football League (NFL) franchises do not share their market with any other football teams and, thus, enjoy the benefits of territorial monopolies. With restriction on the number of teams in the league and franchise agreements

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Adam Love, Alexander Deeb, and Lars Dzikus

On April 30, 2016, the Minnesota Vikings selected Moritz Böhringer, a wide receiver from Germany, in the sixth round of the National Football League (NFL) Draft. Although the 180th overall pick in the draft would not typically draw much attention, the selection of Böhringer was notable, as he was

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Joon Ho Lim, Leigh Anne Donovan, Peter Kaufman, and Chiharu Ishida

media and their in-game performance. To fill this research gap, we examined the quantity and the quality (degree of humility) of National Football League (NFL) player social media posts and how they are associated with on-field performance. This study is the first to use individual professional athlete

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Kristopher White, Kathryn Wilson, Theresa A. Walton-Fisette, Brian H. Yim, and Michele K. Donnelly

Becoming a National Football League (NFL) player is relatively rare. According to participation data gathered by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, 2017 ), there were 1,083,308 participants in high school football, and only 6.8% of that population went on to compete in the NCAA

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Zachary Y. Kerr, Julianna Prim, J.D. DeFreese, Leah C. Thomas, Janet E. Simon, Kevin A. Carneiro, Stephen W. Marshall, and Kevin M. Guskiewicz

As a collision sport, American football has a high risk of serious physical injury. 1 Data from the National Football League (NFL) indicate that up to 68% of NFL players may be injured in a season. 2 Despite research that has focused on mental and physical health outcomes associated with

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Nicole Reams, Rodney A. Hayward, Jeffrey S. Kutcher, and James F. Burke


Lingering neurologic injury after concussion may expose athletes to increased risk if return to play is premature. The authors explored whether on-field performance after concussion is a marker of lingering neurologic injury.


Retrospective cohort study on 1882 skill-position players who played in the National Football League (NFL) during 2007–2010.


Players with concussion based on the weekly injury report were compared with players with other head and neck injuries (controls) on measures of on-field performance using Football Outsiders’ calculation of defense-adjusted yards above replacement (DYAR), a measure of a player’s contribution controlling for game context. Changes in performance, relative to a player’s baseline level of performance, were estimated before and after injury using fixed-effects models.


The study included 140 concussed players and 57 controls. Players with concussion performed no better or worse than their baseline on return to play. However, a decline in DYAR relative to their prior performance was noted 2 wk and 1 wk before appearing on the injury report. Concussed players performed slightly better than controls in situations where they returned to play the same week as appearing on the injury report.


On return, concussed NFL players performed at their baseline level of performance, suggesting that players have recovered from concussion. Decline in performance noted 2 wk and 1 wk before appearing on the injury report may suggest that concussion diagnosis was delayed or that concussion can be a multihit phenomenon. Athletic performance may be a novel tool for assessing concussion injury and recovery.

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William T. Harris

In 1974 the National Football League Rules Committee changed the way the ball was turned over after a missed field goal attempted beyond the defending team’s 20-yard line. As a result of this change, it is postulated that more accurate placekickers would become relatively more valuable to a team and receive higher earnings. The available evidence suggests that no measurable increase has occurred since the rule change in the relative earnings of more accurate long distance placekickers. Possible reasons for this result are discussed.