The purpose of this study was to explore Native American students’ participation patterns and self-reported physical activities. Participants (N = 376) completed the previously validated Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ) a four part 83-item recall questionnaire from the NIH Pathways Study. Data analyses included internal consistency reliability, descriptive statistics and Kappa tests investigating stability over reporting time periods. Similar to urban students’ reports, these Native American students reported frequent participation in only a few types of physical activities along with common reports of sedentary behaviors. While this study adds to our knowledge of Native American students’ physical activity preferences and activity patterns, more information is needed to aid development of specific, culturally relevant physical activity programming.
Dierdra Bycura, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Janice Jirsak and Rachelle Jones
Karla A. Henderson and Barbara E. Ainsworth
Physical activity involvement often changes as an individual gets older. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore the involvement in and meanings of physical activity from childhood to the present among a selected group of Native American women. The results showed that perceived meanings of physical activity remained relatively stable over the lives of these women. Two patterns of involvement emerged among the women: decliners and rejuvenators. The results suggested that physical activity as women aged was a result not of choice as often as of a life situation. Furthermore, the changes occurring in physical activity over the life course reflected social and cultural influences, as well as individual self-determination. The findings indicated that a variety of perspectives are needed if researchers are to understand the changes that occur in physical activity patterns and how both women and men of all ethnic groups might remain involved in physical activity throughout their lives.
Rebecca A. Alt
By Andrew C. Billings and Jason Edward Black. University of Illinois Press , 2018, Urbana, IL. In Mascot Nation: The Controversy over Native American Representation in Sports , Billings and Black offer a careful analysis of Native American mascotting practices—names, images, and rituals—in U
By Andrew C. Billings and Jason Edward Black. Published 2018 by University of Illinois Press , Urbana, IL. $24.95 paperback. 241 pp. ISBN: 978-0-252-08378-5 Native American mascots thrived in the early 1900s, and the controversy surrounding this issue did not surface until the 1960s ( King, 2010
Numerous educational institutions and professional sports teams still use Native American mascots, despite strong opposition ranging from Native American groups to the American Psychological Association. Fans, community members, and teams defend the mascots by asserting that they honor Native American peoples. Sports journalists occupy a unique location in the debate, as they regularly cover teams with such mascots and commonly refer to them in stories. In light of this ongoing debate and pressure to change reporting practices, this research used a survey to examine sports reporters’ experiences and attitudes toward Native American mascots and their beliefs about the role they themselves should take in the public debate. Results show an overall lack of support for Native American mascots, with key differences based on participant race, job title, and belief in the value that sports bring to society. Furthermore, sports journalists appear to support taking a public stand on the issue but resist the idea of eliminating mascot references from stories. The author discusses the implications of these findings in light of the growing movement to ban these mascots, as well as the evolving role that sports journalists embody at the intersection of sports and social issues.
Fraser Laveay, Coy Callison and Ann Rodriguez
The pervasiveness of media coverage of sports teams with American Indian names and imagery has arguably supported stereotypical beliefs of those referenced. Past research investigating opinions on sports teams using American Indian themes has been inconsistent in findings and drawn criticism for lacking valid samples of Native Americans. Through a survey of National Congress of American Indians leaders (n = 208) and random U.S. adults (n = 484), results reveal that Native Americans are more offended by sports teams employing American Indian imagery, as well as more supportive of change, than is the general public. Investigation of how demographic characteristics influenced perceptions show that although age and education level have little influence, political party affiliation does correlate with opinions, with those voting Democrat viewing the teams with American Indian names, logos, and mascots as most offensive and in need of change.
Jane M. Stangl
Claire C. Murchison, Avery Ironside, Lila M.A. Hedayat and Heather J.A. Foulds
North American indigenous populations include Inuit, First Nations (FN), and Métis in Canada, and American Indian (AI) and Alaskan Native, collectively referred to as Native American in the United States. 1 , 2 Indigenous populations of North America face considerable health disparities including
Hans C. Rasmussen
-stick version of the ubiquitous Native American stick-and-ball game that has come down to us as the modern sport of lacrosse. Their adoption of the game and its popularity among both black and white spectators had emerged sometime in the mid-eighteenth century and persisted for the next century and a half, a