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Philomena B. Ikulayo and Johnson A. Semidara

This article discusses unorthodox sport psychology practices typical with Nigerian athletes, which differ from Western mainstream practice models. These practices are specific Nigerian cultural approaches to sport psychology and are based on two broad types of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The intrinsic aspects include prayers, chanting of songs, verbalization of incantations, psyching verses, and juju and spirits in motivational processes. The extrinsic strategies include praise singing, audience verbalization, drumming effects, persistent silent audiences’ effects, and presence of important persons as spectators or part of the audience. The article concludes with the hope that some of these unique practice strategies will be further researched and will be viable for adoption by athletes in other nations of the world who believe in their power so that multicultural practices can help advance the field of sport psychology.

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Ade F. Adeniyi, Olukemi O. Odukoya, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Rufus A. Adedoyin, Olatunde S. Ojo, Edirin Metseagharun, and Kingsley K. Akinroye

Background:

The Nigerian Report card on Physical Activity (PA) in Children and Youth was first developed in 2013 to inform practice and policy on healthy living and prevention of noncommunicable diseases among Nigerian children and youth. This article summarizes the results of the 2016 report card and provides updated evidence on the current situation in Nigeria.

Methods:

A comprehensive review of literature was undertaken by the Report Card Working Group. Grades were assigned to 10 PA indicators based on the criteria used for the 2013 edition.

Results:

Grades assigned to the indicators were Overall PA, D; Active Play and Leisure, C; Active Transportation, B; Sedentary Behaviors (screen-based, F and nonscreen-based, D); Overweight and Obesity, A; PA in Schools, C-; Government/Nongovernment Organizations/Private Sector/Policy, B. The following indicators were graded as Incomplete: Organized Sport and PA, Community and Built Environment, and Family and Peers.

Conclusions:

The overall PA levels of Nigerian children and youth seemed to be declining compared with the 2013 Report card but with slight improvement in active play and leisure, and PA in school settings. A substantial number of Nigerian children and youth still have high sedentary behaviors, overweight and obesity. Efforts are needed to promote PA among them.

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Kingsley K. Akinroye, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Oluwakemi O. Odukoya, Ade F. Adeniyi, Rufus A. Adedoyin, Olatunde S. Ojo, Damilola A. Alawode, Ebenezer A. Ozomata, and Taofeek O. Awotidebe

Background:

Physical activity (PA) promotion in children and youth is an impetus for prevention and control of NCD morbidity and mortality, but evidence is needed for effective interventions. The aim of the present paper is to summarize the results of the 2013 Nigerian Report Card on Physical Activity for children and youth.

Methods:

The Technical Report Committee conducted a comprehensive review of available literature in Nigeria. Grades were assigned to 10 PA indicators modeled after the Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) grading system.

Results:

Specific grades were assigned for several indicators: Overall Physical Activity Levels, C; Organized Sport and Physical Activity Participation, Incomplete; Active Play and Leisure, C-; Active Transportation, B; Sedentary Behaviors, F; Overweight and Obesity, B+. The following indicators were graded as INCOMPLETE: Physical Activity in School setting, Family and Peers, Community and Built Environment, and Government Strategies and Investments.

Conclusions:

PA levels of Nigerian children and youth are moderate while sedentary behaviors are high. The development of national guidelines for PA and sedentary behaviors can better inform policy and practice on healthy living among Nigerian children and youth.

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Chuka Onwumechili

This qualitative research investigated the meaning of the European football leagues’ domination of the Nigerian football market. It finds that the media use a frame of “Nigeria as colony” to report football. In essence, the media interpret Europe as center of modern football and Nigeria as periphery. The study uses 2 methods: (a) a frame analysis of 2 daily sports newspapers, 1 national daily newspaper, and a satellite television sports channel and (b) in-depth interviews of 10 Nigerian football fans. Each complementary method helps confirm results obtained by the other. The frame analysis discovers 4 themes and the interviews found 5 related themes. Each theme logically links to the archetype frame of Nigeria as colony. The results of the study confirm valence framing, demonstrating the impact of the frame on Nigerian sports fans.

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Kingsley K. Akinroye and Ade F. Adeniyi

Introduction Children and youth dominate the Nigerian population with median age being 17.9 years. 1 There is need to keep this bulging youth population healthy now and in the future. With the global surge in noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), it is especially important to promote an active healthy

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Babatunde O.A. Adegoke and Adewale L. Oyeyemi

Background:

This study assessed the prevalence of physical inactivity and the influence of sociodemographic variables on physical activity categories, highlighting the correlates of physical inactivity in Nigerian young adults.

Methods:

A representative sample of young adults age 16 to 39 years (n = 1006) from a Nigerian University were categorized using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire as physically inactive, moderately active, and highly active. Prevalence rates were computed for the activity categories and the independent associations of sociodemographic correlates on each category were determined using the multinomial logistic regression.

Results:

Physical inactivity prevalence was 41%. More likely to be inactive were females (OR = 1.93; CI: 1.49−2.49), those of Hausa ethnicity (OR = 2.29; CI: 1.08−5.84), having BMI > 30 kg/m2 (OR = 2.88; CI: 1.16−7.17), and those whose parents’ annual income was < 180,000 NAIRA (OR = 1.69; CI: 1.04−2.95). Less likely to be moderately active were females (OR = 0.71; CI: 0.61−0.95), those with BMI between 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2 (OR = 0.46; CI: 0.23−0.92), and those of Hausa ethnicity (OR = 0.17; CI: 0.04−0.74).

Conclusion:

Important sociodemographic variables that can contribute to the preliminary analysis of correlates of physical inactivity among Nigerian young adults were identified.

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Ademola Onifade

This paper examined athletics administrators' perceptions of the operative goals of interuniversity athletics in Nigeria. The study also analyzed the rankings of operative goals by subgroups based on age, educational qualification, competitive sport experience, and present job title. Data for the study were collected with the Scale of Athletic Priorities (Chelladurai, Inglis, & Danylchuk, 1984), which measures nine operative goals of interuniversity athletics. All groups were congruent in ranking prestige, public relations, athletes' personal growth, and entertainment as the four top objectives. These results were similar to those reported in the literature.

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Adewale L. Oyeyemi, James F. Sallis, Adetoyeje Y. Oyeyemi, Mariam M. Amin, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, and Benedicte Deforche

Background:

This study adapted the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale (PANES) to the Nigerian context and assessed the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the Nigerian version (PANES-N).

Methods:

A multidisciplinary panel of experts adapted the original PANES to reflect the built and social environment of Nigeria. The adapted PANES was subjected to cognitive testing and test retest reliability in a diverse sample of Nigerian adults (N = 132) from different neighborhood types. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) was used to assess test-retest reliability, and construct validity was investigated with Analysis of Covariance for differences in environmental attributes between neighborhoods.

Results:

Four of the 17 items on the original PANES were significantly modified, 3 were removed and 2 new items were incorporated into the final version of adapted PANES-N. Test-retest reliability was substantial to almost perfect (ICC = 0.62–1.00) for all items on the PANES-N, and residents of neighborhoods in the inner city reported higher residential density, land use mix and safety, but lower pedestrian facilities and aesthetics than did residents of government reserved area/new layout neighborhoods.

Conclusion:

The PANES-N appears promising for assessing environmental perceptions related to physical activity in Nigeria, but further testing is required to assess its applicability across Africa.

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Adesola C. Odole, Olawale T. Agbomeji, Ogochukwu K.K. Onyeso, Joshua O. Ojo, and Nse A. Odunaiya

collision. 5 The prevalence of sports injuries varies based on the type of sports involved. In Nigeria, the prevalence of injuries in football, basketball, and the marathon were reported as 81.6%, 55.8%, and 16.3%, respectively. 5 – 7 Injuries affect both professional and amateur athletes, and they can

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Emmanuel Chiebuka Okoye, Christopher Olusanjo Akosile, Fatai Adesina Maruf, Ifeoma Uchenna Onwuakagba, and Victoria Chinonye Chukwuma

medicine has ensured a rapid increase in older adult population, which was reported to be more than 600 million in 2017 globally and was estimated to double by the year 2025, rising to two billion by 2050 ( Lutz, Sanderson, & Scherbov, 2008 ; World Health Organization, 2011 ). In Nigeria, the older adults