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Gashaw Abeza, Norm O’Reilly, and Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove

). In RM, different schools of thought emerged in the 1980s and 1990s with the growth of literature in the field ( Palmer et al., 2005 ; Setyawan, Purwanto, Dharmmesta, & Nugroho, 2019 ; Sheth, 2017 ). The commonly discussed major schools include (a) the Nordic school of service management, (b

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Emily Stadder and Michael L. Naraine

be simply visualized as companies’ transition away from product-based transactions to considering what they can do for their customers in terms of total service offerings ( Grönroos, 1996 ). A decade before the term “relationship marketing” was even established, the Nordic School of Service and IMP

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Gashaw Abeza and Jimmy Sanderson

value of products and/or services that are exchanged. For a relationship to develop (according to the Nordic school of thought), three components must work well together: communication, interaction, and value. Communication by creating and sharing knowledge between businesses and customers must then