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Michelle Seanor, Robert J. Schinke, Natalia B. Stambulova, Kristoffer Henriksen, Dave Ross, and Cole Giffin

Olympic champion. Data Collection The Guided Walks Three contextual experts, the Olympic coach, the assistant coach, and the Olympic champion, were engaged in this case study. Each contextual expert held a different role in Skyriders and provided insight about the sport environment from his or her unique

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We, the Editors and Publishers of the International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, have withdrawn the following article in whole: Plews, DJ, Laursen, PB. Training intensity distribution over a four-year cycle in Olympic champion rowers: different roads lead to Rio [version of record published online ahead of print September 27, 2017]. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2017-0343. The Editorial Office was contacted with the request to withdraw this article informing the Editor-in-Chief that the data in this article were not permissible to use due to undisclosed contractual obligations.

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Susan A. Jackson, Lisa Mayocchi, and Jeremy Dover

The experiences of 18 Olympic gold medallists from Australia are analyzed relative to the changes effected by their Olympic wins. Specifically, the effect an Olympic win has on subsequent athletic performance is addressed as are athletes’ strategies for coping with changes faced after winning a gold medal and recommendations for future Olympic champions. Athletes perceived that both preparation and focus for subsequent competitions were affected by an Olympic win and saw most of these changes as negative influences. Athletes’ coping strategies were similar to those reported by other elite athletes. Recommendations for helping prepare elite athletes for the changes associated with high-level athletic success are discussed.

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Susan A. Jackson, Jeremy Dover, and Lisa Mayocchi

To better understand the impact that winning an Olympic gold medal has upon athletes, a qualitative investigation of the experiences encountered by Australian athletes who won an Olympic gold medal between 1984-1992 was conducted. A total of 18 Olympic champions were interviewed on their experiences as gold medallists. While athletes recognized many positive aspects associated with their Olympic wins, a large number of negative experiences were also recounted. The win created significant and long-lasting change to most athletes’ lives. Evaluation and comparison of the athletes’ personal experiences in relation to other Australian gold medallists from this time period are discussed.

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Craig Pickering and John Kiely

Purpose: The genetic influence on the attainment of elite athlete status is well established, with a number of polymorphisms found to be more common in elite athletes than in the general population. As such, there is considerable interest in understanding whether this information can be utilized to identify future elite athletes. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to compare the total genotype scores of 5 elite athletes to those of nonathletic controls, to subsequently determine whether genetic information could discriminate between these groups, and, finally, to suggest how these findings may inform debates relating to the potential for genotyping to be used as a talent-identification tool. Methods: The authors compared the total genotype scores for both endurance (68 genetic variants) and speed-power (48 genetic variants) elite athlete status of 5 elite track-and-field athletes, including an Olympic champion, to those of 503 White European nonathletic controls. Results: Using the speed-power total genotype score, the elite speed-power athletes scored higher than the elite endurance athletes; however, using this speed-power score, 68 nonathletic controls registered higher scores than the elite power athletes. Surprisingly, using the endurance total genotype score, the elite speed-power athletes again scored higher than the elite endurance athletes. Conclusions: These results suggest that genetic information is not capable of accurately discriminating between elite athletes and nonathletic controls, illustrating that the use of such information as a talent-identification tool is currently unwarranted and ineffective.

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Iñigo Mujika

Age-related fitness declines in athletes can be due to both aging and detraining. Very little is known about the physiological and performance decline of professional cyclists after retirement from competition. To gain some insight into the aging and detraining process of elite cyclists, 5-time Tour de France winner and Olympic Champion Miguel Indurain performed a progressive cycle-ergometer test to exhaustion 14 y after retirement from professional cycling (age 46 y, body mass 92.2 kg). His maximal values were oxygen uptake 5.29 L/min (57.4 mL · kg−1 · min−1), aerobic power output 450 W (4.88 W/kg), heart rate 191 beats/min, blood lactate 11.2 mM. Values at the individual lactate threshold (ILT): 4.28 L/min (46.4 mL · kg−1 · min−1), 329 W (3.57 W/kg), 159 beats/min, 2.4 mM. Values at the 4-mM onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA): 4.68 L/min (50.8 mL · kg−1 · min−1), 369 W (4.00 W/kg), 170 beats/min. Average cycling gross efficiency between 100 and 350 W was 20.1%, with a peak value of 22.3% at 350 W. Delta efficiency was 27.04%. Absolute maximal oxygen uptake and aerobic power output declined by 12.4% and 15.2% per decade, whereas power output at ILT and OBLA declined by 19.8% and 19.2%. Larger declines in maximal and submaximal values relative to body mass (19.4–26.1%) indicate that body composition changed more than aerobic characteristics. Nevertheless, Indurain’s absolute maximal and submaximal oxygen uptake and power output still compare favorably with those exhibited by active professional cyclists.

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Editorial Too Young to Vote, Old Enough to Be an Olympic Champion Iñigo Mujika 12 2012 7 4 307 307 10.1123/ijspp.7.4.307 Letters to the Editor Letter to the Editor Ralph Beneke Olaf Hoos 12 2012 7 4 308 309 10.1123/ijspp.7.4.308 Brief Review Ultramarathon Runners: Nature or Nurture? Beat

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Ralph Beneke and Renate M. Leithäuser

a long history of concerns about men winning medals in female events. One historical case was Stella Walsh, the world’s fastest woman in the 1930s, diagnosed postmortem with mosaicism. More recent debates including court cases concerning South African 800-m World and Olympic champion Caster Semenya

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Thomas Haugen, Gøran Paulsen, Stephen Seiler, and Øyvind Sandbakk

that 2 Olympic champion rowers yielded 7.1 L·min −1 V ˙ O 2 max on average. To put these exceptionally high V ˙ O 2 max values in a physiological context, it is worthwhile to contextualize them within the 3 components of the Fick equation. A large male endurance athlete (approximately 100 kg) who