Racial/ethnic disparities in access to social and environmental supports for physical activity (PA) exist at each level of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological-systems model. African American and Latino youth are less likely to have PA equipment at home, more likely to have access to electronic-media devices, and more likely to attend schools with insufficient PA programming (microsystem). Parents of African American and Latino youth tend to have lower involvement at schools, resulting in fewer opportunities to provide social support for their children’s PA (mesosystem). African American and Latino youth also lack safe places to exercise in their neighborhoods (exosystem) and may experience socioeconomic and cultural barriers to engaging in PA (macrosystem). Yet, there are vast opportunities to intervene—policy approaches, developing school- and family-based programming, and altering the built environment can foster the adoption and maintenance of health-enhancing PA in ethnic-minority youth. This review highlights prominent disparities in PA supports for African American and Latino children and adolescents, as well as current strategies used to reduce disparities in youth PA.
Mouza Al Zaabi, Syed Mahboob Shah, Mohamud Sheek-Hussein, Abdishakur Abdulle, Abdulla Al Junaibi and Tom Loney
The Active Healthy Kids 2016 United Arab Emirates (UAE) Report Card provides a systematic evaluation of how the UAE is performing in supporting and engaging physical activity (PA) in children and adolescents.
The Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance framework and standardized set of procedures were used to perform the systematic assessment of PA in UAE youth and children. Indicator grades were based on the proportion of children and youth achieving a defined benchmark: A = 81% to 100%; B = 61% to 80%; C = 41% to 60%; D = 21% to 40%; F = 0% to 20%; INC = incomplete data.
Overall Physical Activity Level and Active Transportation both received a grade of D-/F-. Sedentary Behavior and Family and Peers both received a C- minus grade and School was graded D. Minus grades indicate PA disparities related to age, gender, nationality, socioeconomic status, and geographic location. Government Strategies and Investments received a B+ grade. Sport Participation, Active Play, and Community and the Built Environment were graded INC due to a lack of nationally representative data for all 7 emirates.
The majority of UAE children are not achieving the daily recommended level of PA. The UAE leadership has invested significant resources into improving PA through school- and community-based PA interventions; however, inter- and intraemirate population-based strategies remain fragmented.
Tyler Prochnow, Haley Delgado, Megan S. Patterson and M. Renée Umstattd Meyer
understanding of health outcomes and interventions for populations with greater health and PA disparities. In addition, SNA could provide a better understanding of cultural differences, such as collectivism and individualism, for relationship dynamics and their effects on PA in these populations. Collectivism
Sarah A. Amin, Paula J. Duquesnay, Catherine M. Wright, Kenneth Chui, Christina D. Economos and Jennifer M. Sacheck
-SES children, which may serve as a conduit for future work aimed at closing the gap in PA disparities. A key takeaway from this study is that low-SES children, even those who report high PAC and participation in organized sports, still participate in less PA compared with middle-SES children. The difference in
Natalie Kružliaková, Paul A. Estabrooks, Wen You, Valisa Hedrick, Kathleen Porter, Michaela Kiernan and Jamie Zoellner
took place in an 8-county region in rural, Appalachian southwest Virginia. This area is classified as medically underserved and has considerable socioeconomic inequalities, which predisposes residents to PA disparities. 44 , 45 Within this 8-county region, data from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Nisha Botchwey, Myron F. Floyd, Keshia Pollack Porter, Carmen L. Cutter, Chad Spoon, Tom L. Schmid, Terry L. Conway, J. Aaron Hipp, Anna J. Kim, M. Renee Umstattd Meyer, Amanda L. Walker, Tina J. Kauh and Jim F. Sallis
unintentionally widened PA disparities between children in urban and rural settings. In a recent search, no peer-reviewed literature was identified that described how to plan and implement Play Streets in rural areas. Information is lacking not only on how to implement Play Streets in rural settings but also on