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Lawrence R. Brawley, Madelaine S. H. Gierc, and Sean R. Locke

There are multiple avenues to gain health promoting and disease preventing benefits of physical activity (PA) but nonadherence makes health benefits short-lived. Gains obtained through structured exercise training and therapy quickly decay once participants leave programs. Scientific position statements underscore cognitive-behavioral strategies (CBS) as an essential intervention component to increase and maintain PA and recommend transfer of CBS knowledge to practice. Our review of reviews indicates high quality PA interventions involving CBS consistently demonstrate medium effect sizes. Kinesiologists are the human resource capacity to translate this knowledge. Building capacity to implement CBS knowledge is potentially large given North American kinesiology programs and American College of Sports Medicine and Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology certification routes. Yet CBS training of kinesiologists by universities and organizations is minimal. Immediate change in CBS training and practice is needed. Professional organizations/institutions can either be leaders in developing human resources or part of the problem should they fail to address the challenge of CBS training.

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Ruth Miller, Wendy Brown, and Catrine Tudor-Locke


The aims of this study were to describe the amount of non-ambulatory physical activity (PA) undertaken by a sample of Australian workers, and to evaluate different methods of accounting for non-ambulatory activities when using pedometers to measure physical activity.


Adults age 18 to 64 y (N = 204) wore a pedometer and recorded steps and non-step activity in a logbook for 7 d. Non-ambulatory activity was recorded by 28% of the participants (N = 52) with cycling and swimming the most frequently reported.


The mean time reported for non-ambulatory activities was 82.8 (standard deviation 80.0) min/wk. On average, participants recorded 8873 (standard deviation 2757) steps/d. Time in non-ambulatory activities was converted to steps equivalents using three different conversion methods. Use of the three methods added 333 to 721 steps/d in the whole sample, but 1153 to 2566 steps/d for those who reported non-ambulatory activity.


Suggestions are provided for accounting for non-ambulatory activities in interventions which rely on step count measures.

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Mariana Luciano de Almeida, Francine Golghetto Casemiro, Camila Tiome Baba, Diana Monteiro, Mariana Fornazieri, Natália Cerri, Daniele Frascá Martins Fernandes, and Grace Angélica de Oliveira Gomes

this model is the possibility of creating PA intervention based on stages of behavior change. 26 – 29 One methodological tool that tracks behavioral changes and can be used in research is follow-up analysis. Studies using this analysis are useful to identify either individual or group progress in an

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Andrew Powell

the following sections, the current evidence regarding the effectiveness of PA interventions for older adults, and their notable components and characteristics, will be reviewed. Then, the therapeutic alliance concept and its traditional application in psychotherapy will be introduced and explained

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Nadja Willinger, James Steele, Lou Atkinson, Gary Liguori, Alfonso Jimenez, Steve Mann, and Elizabeth Horton

multitude of interventions aiming to increase PA levels, these figures have not improved throughout past decades. 1 , 2 Many of PA interventions can be classified as structured interventions as they provide a clear recommendation on the frequency of attendance of preplanned exercise sessions. 3 Structured

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Amie Woodward, David Broom, Caroline Dalton, Mostafa Metwally, and Markos Klonizakis

medium to large effect size. Discussion This study explored the feasibility and acceptability of 2 PA interventions for women with PCOS, encompassing both a supervised exercise intervention and a lifestyle PA intervention aimed at reducing sedentary behaviors. Based on the criteria for success, the main

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Seung Ho Chang, Kyungun Kim, Jihyun Lee, and Sukho Lee

, physical education, and sports. 3 Because of the importance of PA, health promotion interventions have often included PA as one of the intervention components and/or designed to increase it as an outcome measure. The development of effective PA interventions for more vulnerable populations to physical

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Janine V. Olthuis, Margo C. Watt, Christopher E. J. DeWolfe, Emma Connell, Emily N. Wright, and Laura Sevigny

studies showed that PA had a large effect on AS (Hedges’s g  = 0.72, Jacquart et al., 2019 ). There is also evidence that changes in AS resulting from PA mediate the effects of PA on anxiety and depression ( Smits et al., 2008 ). Early reductions in AS prompted by a PA intervention may result in later

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Heather J. Leach, Katie B. Potter, and Mary C. Hidde

) and interventions that employ strategies and principles that align with a group dynamics-based approach. A meta-analysis by Burke et al 26 found that PA interventions using group dynamics principles to increase cohesiveness (referred to as “true groups”) were more effective for increasing PA

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Junxin Li, Sarah L. Szanton, Miranda V. McPhillips, Nada Lukkahatai, Grace W. Pien, KerCheng Chen, Melissa D. Hladek, Nancy Hodgson, and Nalaka S. Gooneratne

sleep quality in older adults ( Sonnega, Leggett, Pepin, & Assari, 2020 ; Tsunoda et al., 2015 ). Multiple systematic reviews have also affirmed that PA interventions improve sleep quality in older adults ( Banno et al., 2018 ; Kredlow, Capozzoli, Hearon, Calkins, & Otto, 2015 ; Vanderlinden et