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Walter R. Bixby, Thomas W. Spalding and Bradley D. Hatfield

Electroencephalographic (EEG) and self-report measures of affect were obtained from 27 participants (14 F, 13 M) before, during, and following 30 min of continuous exercise at low and high intensities to determine the respective temporal courses of affective response. Mood was measured via a visual analog mood scale (VAMS), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedules (PANAS-PA and -NA), and EEG hemispheric asymmetry as obtained from three electrode pairs: F4-F3, F8-F7, and P4-P3. Participants reported higher VAMS and lower PANAS-NA scores during low-intensity exercise relative to baseline, and the higher scores were maintained during recovery. In contrast, they reported lower scores on the VAMS during high-intensity exercise relative to baseline that were subsequently elevated during recovery. Also, during high-intensity exercise the PANAS-NA scores were similar to baseline, but they were lower during recovery. Both the VAMS and PANAS-NA scores observed after exercise were similar regardless of intensity. Additionally, participants had higher PANAS-PA and EEG hemispheric asymmetry scores (i.e., F8-F7) during exercise at both intensities relative to baseline, then reported values similar to baseline levels on cessation of work. The magnitude of change from baseline for the PANAS-PA and EEG scores during exercise was similar regardless of exercise intensity.

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Margaret P. Sanders and Nicholas P. Murray

participant’s self-efficacy, affect, and well-being. These measuring tools included the PANAS-X gauging positive and negative affect; the Personal Well-being Index-Adults scale, Subject Vitality scale, and a Self-Defense Self-Efficacy scale. Skill acquisition and performance were assessed through two

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Sarah J. Parker, Scott J. Strath and Ann M. Swartz

This study examined the relationship between physical activity (PA) and mental health among older adults as measured by objective and subjective PA-assessment instruments. Pedometers (PED), accelerometers (ACC), and the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) were administered to measure 1 week of PA among 84 adults age 55–87 (mean = 71) years. General mental health was measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWL). Linear regressions revealed that PA estimated by PED significantly predicted 18.1%, 8.3%, and 12.3% of variance in SWL and positive and negative affect, respectively, whereas PA estimated by the PASE did not predict any mental health variables. Results from ACC data were mixed. Hotelling–William tests between correlation coefficients revealed that the relationship between PED and SWL was significantly stronger than the relationship between PASE and SWL. Relationships between PA and mental health might depend on the PA measure used.

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Jamie B. Barker and Marc V. Jones

This study reports the effects of a hypnosis intervention on a professional soccer player who reported low self-efficacy and a negative mood state relative to his soccer performance. Pre- and postintervention data were collected via a Soccer Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SSEQ) that consisted of 10 items relating to good soccer performance, the Trait Sport Confidence Inventory (TSCI), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and a Soccer Performance Measure (SPM). An intervention program consisting of eight hypnosis sessions was conducted. These sessions comprised the presentation of ego-strengthening suggestions. Both visual and statistical analysis revealed substantial increases in trait sport confidence, self-efficacy, positive affect, and soccer performance, as well as a substantial decrease in negative affect over the course of the intervention. The findings of this case study suggest that hypnosis can be used to enhance self-efficacy, affect, and sport performance. A number of practical issues are presented surrounding the use of hypnosis in the context of English soccer and with athletes in general.

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Daniel M. Landers, Shawn M. Arent and Rafer S. Lutz

Recent research has demonstrated transient affective changes and impairment of short-term memory in college wrestlers as a result of rapid weight loss (RWL) of at least 5% body weight prior to competition. This study examined the effects of RWL on cognition and affect in high school wrestlers. Wrestlers were considered to be engaging in RWL if they were losing over 5% of body weight (n = 14). Those losing less than 1% of body weight (n = 14) were considered maintainers and served as the control group. Both groups were given a battery of tests assessing cognitive performance (Trail Making Tests A & B, Stroop color-word test, Wechsler digit span, and choice reaction/movement time) and affective state (PANAS) at normal weight (5 to 10 days prior to competition) and again 8 to 12 hours prior to weigh-in. Results indicated an average loss of 4.68 kg in the RWL group and 0.29 kg in the control group. A group-by-time MANOVA and univariate follow-up tests indicated a significant group-by-time interaction for positive affect, p < .014, with the RWL wrestlers having less positive affect than the control group just prior to weigh-in. However, none of the cognitive performance tests demonstrated significant differential changes for RWL vs. control groups, p > .10. Given the control for competition effects in the present study, results suggest there are affective disturbances, but not cognitive impairments, associated with RWL of at least 5% body weight in high school wrestlers.

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Jing Dong Liu and Pak-Kwong Chung

in Physical Education (PNTSPE), and the International Positive and Negative Affect Schedule Short Form (I-PANAS-SF). Questionnaires with missing PLOC values were considered invalid and deleted from further analysis ( Cheema, 2014 ). Excluding invalid cases, the final sample included 1

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Ali Al-Yaaribi and Maria Kavussanu

–9) . * p  < .05. ** p  < .01. Positive and negative affect The 10-item version of the International Positive and Negative Affect Schedule-Short Form (I-PANAS-SF; Thompson, 2007 ) was used to measure participants’ positive (five items; e.g., determined, alert, inspired, attentive, and active) and negative

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Jens Van Lier and Filip Raes

14 as a cut off for moderate depression ( Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995 ). Internal consistency for the depression subscale in this sample was high (α = .86). Positive and negative affect scales (PANAS) The PANAS consists of two scales, both 10 items, which measures positive affect (e

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Leilani A. Madrigal, Vincenzo Roma, Todd Caze, Arthur Maerlender and Debra Hope

reliability analysis from the present study ( α  = .91). The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (The PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988 ) is a 20-item self-report questionnaire that measures positive and negative affect on a 6-pont Likert-type scale from the extent they felt an emotion ranging from