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Lane Wakefield and Gregg Bennett

Virtual fan communities (VFC) have become very popular among fans of sports teams. A VFC provides an online place for fans to meet and discuss the team, consume media, and develop friendships. Students will learn, in this case study, how to use partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) to assess fan attitudes toward the VFC and sponsors of the firm. Students will also learn how sport organizations can benefit from leadership with statistical know-how. The case is fictional, but it is based on an actual research study conducted in conjunction with a prominent virtual fan community in which ownership had an interest in fans’ attitudes toward their service.

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Tyreal Yizhou Qian, Jerred Junqi Wang and James Jianhui Zhang

related factors in e-sports livestreaming. The data collected through an online survey were used for the current investigation. We introduced formative measures to operationalize the push and pull factors and employed partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) analysis to examine the

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Thilo Kunkel, Rui Biscaia, Akiko Arai and Kwame Agyemang

the psychometric properties of these measures, internal consistency, average variance extracted (AVE), and squared correlation tests of discriminant validity were conducted ( Hair et al., 2011 ). PLS-SEM regression analysis with bootstrapping was used to analyze the hypothesized model. PLS-SEM

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Thilo Kunkel, Daniel C. Funk and Daniel Lock

 al., 2013 ). The PLS-SEM model was assessed using guidelines recommended by Hair et al. ( 2011 ). To evaluate formative constructs, multicollinearity (each indicator’s variance inflation factor [VIF] < 5; Hair et al., 2011 ) and validity (parameter estimates for each formative indicator should be

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Mohsen Behnam, Mikihiro Sato, Bradley J. Baker, Vahid Delshab and Mathieu Winand

structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) . Los Angeles, CA : Sage Publications . Hayes , A.F. , & Scharkow , M. ( 2013 ). The relative trustworthiness of inferential tests of the indirect effect in statistical mediation analysis: Does method really matter? Psychological Science, 24 ( 10 ), 1918