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Colin B. Shore, Gill Hubbard, Trish Gorely, Robert Polson, Angus Hunter and Stuart D. Galloway

. Health and Wellbeing Division, Health Service Executive . Dublin, Ireland : Health Service Executive ; 2016 . 29. Moher D , Liberati A , Tetzlaff J , Altman DG , The PRISMA Group . Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA Statement . PLoS Med . 2009

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Brian M. Moore, Joseph T. Adams, Sallie Willcox and Joseph Nicholson

literature was conducted, guided by the PRISMA guidelines ( Moher, Liberati, Tetzlaff, Altman, & PRISMA Group, 2009 ). An experienced medical librarian (S. W.) conducted electronic literature searches using the databases MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus (OVID), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), Embase (OVID), ClinicalTrials

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Chad M. Killian, Christopher J. Kinder and Amelia Mays Woods

guidelines outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews extension for Scoping Reviews Checklist (PRISMA-Sc; Tricco et al., 2018 ). Scoping reviews are particularly useful when the literature on a certain topic is broad and heterogeneous ( Tricco et al., 2016 ). The utility of this method

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Lea-Cathrin Dohme, David Piggott, Susan Backhouse and Gareth Morgan

Strategy To ensure a rigorous selection of literature, we employed PRISMA systematic-review principles based on replicable criteria ( Smith, 2010 ). In accordance with the research aims, a list of key search terms was composed and trialed in a preliminary search on the SPORTDiscus database ( Smith, 2010

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Mark Booth, Stephen Cobley and Rhonda Orr

investigate the effect of TL on physical performance and injury characteristics in rugby league. Methods Search Strategy The systematic review process was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. 37 A systematic search of electronic databases (MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Web of Science, and

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Neil Chapman, John Whitting, Suzanne Broadbent, Zachary Crowley-McHattan and Rudi Meir

to be undertaken. Therefore, this review seeks to inform future experiments of in vivo, voluntarily activated PS-ISO contraction modalities in human skeletal muscle. Methods The methodology for the systematic review followed the PRISMA statement. 35 Literature Search A systematic literature search of

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Terese Wilhelmsen and Marit Sørensen

This systematic review examines research published from 2009 to 2015 on inclusion of children with disabilities in physical education according to the PRISMA guidelines. We have used a stakeholder approach as a framework for organizing and discussing the results. The searches yielded 535 studies, of which 112 were included. The systematic review outlines which stakeholder perspectives received the most attention, the main themes and findings, the methodological trends that governed the research contribution, and the country of data collection. The main findings indicated that perspectives of pre- and in-service teachers and studies of attitudes still dominate the research contributions. The strengths and limitations of the research conducted to date highlight that several other perspectives need to be discussed. Especially important is seeking information from children with disabilities themselves. Other barriers and facilitators perceived by those actively involved in the inclusion process need to be sought.

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Wendy Hens, Jan Taeymans, Justien Cornelis, Jan Gielen, Luc Van Gaal and Dirk Vissers

Background:

Reduction of ectopic fat accumulation plays an important role in the prevention of insulin resistance in people with overweight or obesity. This systematic review and meta-analysis summarizes the current evidence for the use of noninvasive weight loss interventions (exercise or diet) on ectopic fat.

Methods:

A systematic literature search was performed according to the PRISMA statement. Clinical trials in PubMed, PEDro, and the Cochrane database were searched.

Results:

All 33 included studies described the effect of lifestyle interventions on ectopic fat storage in internal organs (liver, heart, and pancreas) and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL), hereby including 1146, 157, 87, and 336 participants. Overall, a significant decrease of ectopic fat was found in liver (−0.53 Hedges’ g, P < .001), heart (−0.72 Hedges’ g, P < .001) and pancreas (–0.55 Hedges’ g, P = .098) respectively. A trend toward decrease in IMCL was also observed. Meta-regression indicated a dose-response relationship between BMI reduction and decreased hepatic adiposity. Exercise alone decreased ectopic fat but the effect was greater when combined with diet.

Conclusions:

Lifestyle interventions can reduce ectopic fat accumulation in the internal organs of overweight and obese adults. The results on IMCL should be interpreted with care, keeping the ‘athlete’s paradox’ in mind.

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Scott Cheatham, Monique Mokha and Matt Lee

Context:

Hip-resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) has become a popular procedure in the treatment of hip-joint arthritis in individuals under the age of 65 y. Although the body of literature examining operative procedures has grown, there is a lack of consistent reporting of the effectiveness of an HRA postoperative rehabilitation program. To date, no systematic reviews have evaluated the available evidence on postoperative rehabilitation programs.

Objective:

To evaluate the available evidence on postoperative rehabilitation programs after HRA.

Evidence Acquisition:

A systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. A search of PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, ProQuest, and Google Scholar was conducted in April 2014 using the following keywords alone and in combination: postoperative, postsurgical, rehabilitation, physical therapy, programs, hip resurfacing, arthroplasty, and metal-on-metal. The grading of studies was conducted using the PEDro and Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine scales.

Evidence Synthesis:

The authors identified 648 citations, 4 of which met the inclusion criteria. The qualifying studies yielded 1 randomized control trial, 2 case reports, and 1 case series, for a total of 90 patients. Patients were mostly male (n = 86), had a mean age of 48 ± 5.47 y, and had been physically active before HRA. Postoperative rehabilitation programs varied in length (range 8–24 wk) and consisted of at least 3 phases. The methodology to assess program effects varied, but all 4 studies did measure a combination of function, pain, and quality of life using written questionnaires, with follow-up ranging from 9 mo to 1 y. The most common questionnaire was the Harris Hip Score.

Conclusion:

This review found postoperative rehabilitation programs after HRA to be underinvestigated. Limited results indicate that postoperative rehabilitation programs may be effective in improving gait (stride length, velocity, and cadence), hip range of motion, and pain and function, as measured by questionnaires, but not hip strength.

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Scott W. Cheatham, Keelan R. Enseki and Morey J. Kolber

Context:

Hip arthroscopy has become an increasingly popular option for active individuals with recalcitrant hip pain. Conditions that may be addressed through hip arthroscopy include labral pathology, femoral acetabular impingement, capsular hyperlaxity, ligamentum teres tears, and the presence of intra-articular bodies. Although the body of literature examining operative procedures has grown, there is a paucity of evidence specifically on the efficacy of postoperative rehabilitation programs. To date, there are no systematic reviews that have evaluated the available evidence on postoperative rehabilitation.

Objective:

To evaluate the available evidence on postoperative rehabilitation programs after arthroscopy of the hip joint.

Evidence Acquisition:

A search of the PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, ProQuest, and Google Scholar databases was conducted in January 2014 according the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for reporting systematic reviews.

Evidence Synthesis:

Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were either case series or case reports (level 4 evidence) that described a 4- or 5-phase postoperative rehabilitation program. The available evidence supports a postoperative period of restricted weight bearing and mobility; however, the specific interventions in the postoperative phases are variable with no comparison trials.

Conclusion:

This review identified a paucity of evidence on postoperative rehabilitation after hip arthroscopy. Existing reports are descriptive in nature, so the superiority of a particular approach cannot be determined. One can surmise from existing studies that a 4- to 5-stage program with an initial period of weight-bearing and mobility precautions is efficacious in regard to function, patient satisfaction, and return to competitive-level athletics. Clinicians may consider such a program as a general guideline but should individualize treatment according to the surgical procedure and surgeon guidelines. Future research should focus on comparative trials to determine the effect of specific postoperative rehabilitation designs.