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Wei Duan-Porter, Remy R. Coeytaux, Jennifer R. McDuffie, Adam P. Goode, Poonam Sharma, Hillary Mennella, Avishek Nagi and John W. Williams Jr.

Background:

This study describes evidence of yoga’s effectiveness for depressive disorders, general anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults. We also address adverse events associated with yoga.

Methods:

We searched multiple electronic databases for systematic reviews (SRs) published between 2008 and July 2014, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) not identified in eligible SRs, and ongoing RCTs registered with ClincalTrials.gov.

Results:

We identified 1 SR on depression, 1 for adverse events, and 3 addressing multiple conditions. The high-quality depression SR included 12 RCTs (n = 619) that showed improved short-term depressive symptoms (standardized mean difference, –0.69, 95% confidence interval, –0.99 to –0.39), but there was substantial variability (I2 = 86%) and a high risk of bias for 9 studies. Three SRs addressing multiple conditions identified 4 nonrandomized studies (n = 174) for GAD/PD and 1 RCT (n = 8) and 2 nonrandomized studies (n = 22) for PTSD. We separately found 1 RCT (n = 13) for GAD and 2 RCTs (n = 102) for PTSD. Collectively, these studies were inconclusive for the effectiveness of yoga in treating GAD/PD and PTSD. The high-quality SR for adverse events included 37 primary reports (n = 76) in which inversion postures were most often implicated. We found 5 ongoing trials (3 for PTSD).

Conclusions:

Yoga may improve short-term depressive symptoms, but evidence for GAD, PD, and PTSD remain inconclusive.

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David A. Shearer, Stephen D. Mellalieu and Catherine R. Shearer

While posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is most commonly associated with survivors of traumatic events (e.g., combat), PTSD can occur after any situation in which victims perceive that their life or safety is threatened. In sport, athletes often place themselves in dangerous situations and are also exposed to the same lifestyle dangers as the general population. The literature on PTSD among athletes is sparse, and consequently, it is possible that many (non-clinical) sport psychologists would fail to recognize the symptoms and may subsequently fail to refer the athlete to the appropriate professional for clinical assistance. In the following case study, we present an example of an athlete suffering from PTSD following a serious bicycle accident in which she sustained head and facial injuries. We briefly detail the nature of PTSD and discuss how sport psychology services can be implemented alongside a parallel clinical intervention program. Finally, we offer recommendations for practice when working with athletes with PTSD.

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Daniel Fulham O’Neill

Season-ending injuries, particularly those to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), continue to occur at a high rate in many sports. Although multiple factors are thought to contribute to this injury rate, no study has looked at possible psychological influences. Therefore, the present hypothesis suggests that there exists an emotional trauma that affects athletes after seeing someone in their own sport sustain a serious injury. This traumatic response could result in a change in performance tactics that could result in injury to oneself (“injury contagion”). Students numbering 459 (N= 459; 277 males and 182 females) from four ski academies were studied. Results from psychological testing showed an increase in the use of fear words and phrases after injury to a teammate. As a result, it is recommended that coaches and other personnel maintain a heightened awareness of teammates’ emotions after a team member sustains a significant injury.

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André Bateman and Kai A.D. Morgan

inclusive of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. 3 , 4 PTSD is recognized as a trauma- and stressor-related disorder characterized by subjective clinical distress following exposure to catastrophic or aversive events. 5 The major groups of symptoms of PTSD are intrusive memories and

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Davy Vancampfort, Justin Richards, Brendon Stubbs, Grace Akello, Caleb Ademola Gbiri, Philip B. Ward and Simon Rosenbaum

Background:

People with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more likely than the general population to be physically inactive. The present review systematically evaluated correlates of physical activity across the socioecological model for people with PTSD.

Methods:

Two independent reviewers searched Embase, PubMed, PsycARTICLES, and CINAHL from inception until June 2015, combining the medical subject heading “posttraumatic stress disorder” or “PTSD,” with “physical activity” or “exercise.” Data were extracted by the same independent researchers and summarized according to the socioecological model.

Results:

Eight papers involving 1368 (994 men) participants (age range = 18–70 years) were eligible and enabled evaluation of 21 correlates. The only correlate (n ≥ 4) consistently associated with lower physical activity participation in people with PTSD was symptoms of hyperarousal. No consistent facilitators were identified.

Conclusions:

Hyperarousal symptoms are associated with lower physical activity participation among people with PTSD and should be considered in the design and delivery of individualized exercise programs targeting this population. The role of social, environmental, and policy factors on physical activity participation among people with PTSD is unknown and should be addressed by future research.

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Bradley D. Hatfield

The relevance of kinesiology to the major issues of public health facing the nation is increasing with time. Of great importance is the area of exercise neuroscience in which remarkable developments have occurred in the past 35 years. The primary investigative efforts to date have been devoted to the impact of exercise on normal brain aging and recent efforts have also focused on the neurocognitive benefit to brain development in children. However, little work has been conducted in those with neurological disorders. The literature includes a number of animal studies that offer biological plausibility for the positive influence of exercise observed on brain structure and cognition in normal human subjects and, collectively, these studies provide a foundation on which to examine the role of exercise treatment in some of the major brain disorders that afflict adults and children today. These include the dementias, stroke, traumatic brain disorder (TBI), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and attentional deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A role for exercise in building resilience to such disorders is discussed here that may assist in reducing the financial and emotional burden of these affictions.

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

://psychology.pitt.edu/people/mark-thomas Exercise as an Acceptable and Feasibly Delivered Therapy for Veterans With PTSD Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the most common mental health conditions among U.S. military veterans. PTSD is a psychiatric disorder that can occur when people have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event

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Paul E. Yeatts, Ronald Davis, Jun Oh and Gwang-Yon Hwang

athletes with above- or below-elbow amputation, above- or below-knee amputation, paraplegic or tetraplegic, traumatic brain injuries, visual impairment, serious illnesses, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participation in these competitions has been shown to help injured individuals recover from a

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Danielle Rousseau, Kimberleigh Weiss-Lewit and Mark Lilly

that yoga can help decrease re-experiencing and hyperarousal symptoms ( Mitchell et al., 2015 ) and can help ameliorate symptoms for individuals with treatment-resistant PTSD to the point that a PTSD diagnosis is no longer met ( van der Kolk et al., 2014 ). Maintaining a continued yoga practice appears

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Gretchen Kerr, Erin Willson and Ashley Stirling

the same box in my head, I haven’t opened it up yet.”), negative self-concept (e.g., feeling worthless), and disruption of relationships are all symptoms consistent with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD; Litvin, Kaminski, & Riggs, 2017 ). While we did not set out to explore this disorder, the