Newspaper photographs of athletes at the 1999 Pan-American Games from five Canadian newspapers were analyzed for sexual differences in amount and content. Improvements in media coverage were noted over earlier studies. The percentage of photographs of women athletes was very close to that of men, and bettered their participation rate. There was also little difference in the camera angles used or in the activity level of the athletes pictured. However, sexual differences were still created in very subtle ways. Photographs of men were more likely to appear in prominent locations in the newspaper. Women in some stereotypically “male-appropriate” sports received coverage that brought them back into line with feminine ideals and mitigated their “gender transgressions.” Results suggest that women in the sports media are receiving greater amount of coverage, but the media still maintains practices that subtly create and naturalize sexual differences and set particular sports off as appropriate only for men.
Fred Mason and Geneviève Rail
The purposes of this study were (a) to determine the mechanical factors associated with successful performance of women’s handspring vault and (b) to contrast the findings to those of men to gain insight for improvement of performance. The subjects were 24 female gymnasts in the 1987 Pan American Games. Significant correlations indicated that the following were important determinants for successful results: (a) large horizontal velocity (VH) and distance of hurdle; (b) large vertical velocity (Vv) at touchdown (TD) on board, a large change of Vv on board, and a short time of board contact; (c) large VH and Vv at takeoff (TO) from board; (d) short time of horse contact; (e) large VH and Vv at TO from horse; (f) high body CG at TO from horse; and (g) great distance and height and a long time of postflight. Comparisons revealed that women had significantly smaller VH and Vv at TD on horse and departed from it with significantly smaller VH and Vv than men. This resulted in significantly less height and distance as well as a shorter time of postflight for women even after adjusting for horse height and subject physique.
The purpose of this study was to determine mechanical factors, through development of the deterministic model, that govern successful performance of the handspring vault. The subjects were 40 elite male gymnasts participating in the 1987 Pan American Games. A motion-picture camera placed with its optical axis at right angles to the runway was used to record the subjects’ performances. Significant correlations indicated that the following were important determinants for success: (a) large horizontal velocity and angular momentum at takeoff from board, (b) shorter time of preflight and smaller relative height of takeoff in preflight, (c) large horizontal breaking force and large vertical force exerted as well as a large loss of angular momentum during horse contact, and (d) large vertical velocity of takeoff from horse. Significant correlation of “on-horse” factors with the judges’ scores indicated that the more the gymnast focused on horse contact and the more vertical the direction of his effort at takeoff, the better the final result. A significant negative correlation revealed that the less the height of CG at touchdown on mat, the more points awarded by judges. This relationship was almost entirely a consequence of the landing angle.
Fabio Y. Nakamura, Lucas A. Pereira, César C. Cal Abad, Emerson Franchini, and Irineu Loturco
To quantify the training loads reported by karate athletes of the Brazilian national team in the week immediately before their participation in the 2015 Pan American Games.
Eleven elite karate athletes (7 men and 4 women, 24.42 ± 3.75 y, 1.70 ± 0.09 m, 69.6 ± 13.2 kg) from the Brazilian national team took part in this study. Session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE) was quantified in all training sessions. Moreover, resting heart-rate variability (HRV), as analyzed through the natural log of the root-mean-square difference of successive normal RR intervals (lnRMSSD), and countermovement-jump (CMJ) performance before and after 8 training sessions were assessed throughout the week. The differences based on magnitudes were calculated comparing pre- and posttraining session, as well as measures performed every morning during the week.
The weekly s-RPE was 2608.5 ± 431.2 a.u. The lnRMSSD was very likely higher on Monday than on the following days of the week, remaining stable during this period. CMJ height did not change during the week. Almost certain differences were observed in lnRMSSD pre- and posttraining session, while CMJ height did not change.
The national karate-team athletes did not present signs of fatigue accumulation, as indicated by relatively steady HRV and unchanged CMJ during the week, as planned by the coaches for precompetition technical and tactical refinement.
Michael L. Naraine, Jessie Schenk, and Milena M. Parent
This paper sought to examine the stakeholder network governance structures of two international and two domestic multisports events focusing on (a) exploring the structural connectedness of these networks and (b) illuminating powerful stakeholders vis-à-vis centrality and the ability to control the network’s flow. An exploratory, comparative case study design was built by means of 58 interviews and 550 archival materials. Findings highlight international sports events are sparsely connected networks with power concentrated in the organizing committee, government, and venue stakeholders, who broker coordination with other stakeholders. In contrast, domestic sport event organizing committees appear more decentralized as coordinating actors: Sport organizations, sponsors, and community-based stakeholders emerged as highly connected, powerful stakeholders. Domestic event governance decentralization highlights a potential imbalance in stakeholder interests through network flow control by multiple actors, while the governments’ centrality in international events demonstrates not only mode-dependent salience but also visibility/reputational risks and jurisdictional responsibilities-based salience.
Milena M. Parent
The purpose of this article is to develop a framework of how organizing committees operationally evolve and the types of issues with which they and their stakeholders must deal. Based on a combination of stakeholder theory and issues management, a case study of the 1999 Pan American Games held in Winnipeg, Canada, was built using archival material and interviews. Three major organizing-committee operational modes emerged: planning, implementation, and wrap-up. Issue categories faced by the organizing committee and its stakeholders included politics, visibility, financial, organizing, relationships, operations, sport, infrastructure, human resources, media, interdependence, participation, and legacy. Issue-category prominence depended on the operational mode and organizing-committee member hierarchical level, such that issues became less strategic and broad as one moved through operational modes or down the hierarchy. Issue categories also differed within stakeholder groups, whereas stakeholder interests (material, political, affiliative, informational, and symbolic) differed between stakeholder groups.
Milena M. Parent
The purpose of this article was to examine how the decision-making process changes as a major sport event’s organizing committee moves from the planning to the implementation to the wrap-up modes. A case study of the 1999 Pan American Games, its organizing committee, and its stakeholders was built by means of interviews and archival material. Velocity impacted decision making in different ways. First, the importance of the time, context, and resources parameters changed, as did the model of decision making (from administrative to garbage can to rational). As well, four drivers of decision making (structural dimensions, stakeholder interactions, information management, and personal characteristics) were found. A key strategy for decision makers faced with an increasing velocity environment was planning for the need to react (come Games time) through risk assessments and contingency plans.
Matthew S. Wiseman and Jane Nicholas
Games, the Pan American Games, and the Olympics. 77 By 1962, the constitution emphasized the basic physical requirements for synchro, including “a healthy body with firm muscles and good breath control” as well as “good posture.” Further, it boasted that synchro could be enjoyed by all ages. 78 The
volleyball tournament was held in Paris in 1931. 34 After the formation of the FIVB, during the 1950s in particular, volleyball gained traction on the international multisport event circuit. It was featured in the programs of the second Pan American Games in 1955, the third Asian Games in 1958, and the
Jennifer Sygo, Alexandra M. Coates, Erik Sesbreno, Margo L. Mountjoy, and Jamie F. Burr
outlined in Table 2 . Among the participants who completed the study, six (46%) were “world class” (world or Olympic finalists, or medalists at junior world championships, Pan American Games, or Commonwealth Games), and seven (54%) were “national” (national championship finalists or NextGen