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Inhyang Choi, Damian Haslett, Javier Monforte, and Brett Smith

Para-sport activism is gaining attention around the world due to the potential of disabled elite athletes to highlight forms of oppression that disabled people experience, such as negative attitudes, inaccessible environments, or social exclusion (see Haslett & Smith, 2020 ). In Para-sport

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Shana E. Harrington, Sean McQueeney, and Marcus Fearing

challenge to Para sport competition is the threat of one-sided and predictable competition, in which the least impaired athlete always wins. 6 In Olympic competition, the results of a competition are based on each athlete’s skill, fitness, power, endurance, tactical ability, and mental focus. 7 To promote

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Erik L. Lachance and Milena M. Parent

through a focus on the impacts and interrelationships of satisfaction, motivation, commitment, and sense of community, rather than a single outcome (e.g., satisfaction). An additional issue within the sport (event) volunteer literature pertains to research on para-sport (event) volunteers. In comparison

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Darda Sales and Laura Misener

due, in part, to a general lack of research into para sport ( Jaarsma et al., 2014 ). Dehghansai et al. ( 2017 ) conducted a systematic review of the literature related to the development of para athletes showing only four articles focused on long-term development frameworks. Mann et al. ( 2017

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Nima Dehghansai, Veronica Allan, Ross A. Pinder, and Joe Baker

performance milestones were achieved, and (c) the absolute years that it took athletes to reach each milestone from the time they started their main Para sport (self-identified as their primary sport) participation. Methods The data for this study was collected as part of a larger project exploring the

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Nima Dehghansai, Ross A. Pinder, and Joseph Baker

.25 (3.7) 8.82 (3.13) 10.96 (9.13)  Para sport a 11.68 (7.05) 9.11 (4.46) 11 (7.04) 11.5 (5.66) 15.5 (8.46) 17 (9.79)  Main sport a 20.97 (12.52) 15.68 (8.97) 16.44 (6.21) 19.75 (7.1) 21.75 (9.57) 35.74 (16.35)  Organized main sport a 21.86 (12) 15.88 (8.85) 16.44 (6.21) 19.75 (7.1) 23.73 (7.2) 41.04 (9

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Nima Dehghansai, Daniel Spedale, Melissa J. Wilson, and Joseph Baker

In recent decades, research pertaining to able-bodied (AB) athletes’ development has seen tremendous growth, while little attention has been given to Para sport athletes ( Dehghansai, Lemez, Wattie, & Baker, 2017a ). This is surprising, considering the growth of Para sport systems across the globe

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Damian Haslett, Javier Monforte, Inhyang Choi, and Brett Smith

Academic literature highlights arguments for and against promoting disability activism through Para sport contexts (see Haslett & Smith, 2020 ). One argument against promoting disability activism is that the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) has been, historically, a source of annoyance

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Nancy Quinn and Laura Misener

). It is our world view that ableism is deeply rooted in medical assumptions around impaired sporting bodies, and these assumptions are critical to how athleticism and ability are understood. We argue that ableism in medical and rehabilitation professions exists at the peril of the Para sport athlete

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Alan J. McCubbin, Bethanie A. Allanson, Joanne N. Caldwell Odgers, Michelle M. Cort, Ricardo J.S. Costa, Gregory R. Cox, Siobhan T. Crawshay, Ben Desbrow, Eliza G. Freney, Stephanie K. Gaskell, David Hughes, Chris Irwin, Ollie Jay, Benita J. Lalor, Megan L.R. Ross, Gregory Shaw, Julien D. Périard, and Louise M. Burke

acclimation strategies (e.g., hot bath or sauna posttraining). Para-sport athletes Reduced thermoregulatory sweating and cutaneous blood flow in athletes with spinal cord lesions, with greater impairments with higher spinal cord lesions. Amputees have reduced skin surface area to dissipate heat, and