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Andrew A. Dingley, David B. Pyne and Brendan Burkett

Disabilities in Paralympic swimming could impact a swimmer’s ability to execute an effective swim-start. We examined how swim-start performance differed between severity and type of physical disability. Swim-starts were measured in 55 elite Paralympic swimmers from eight different Paralympic classes; S14, S13, S10-S6, S3 grouped as no- (classes S13 & S14), low- (S9 & S10), mid- (S7 & S8) or high- (≤ S6) severity of physical disability and also by type of physical disability (upper, lower, and palsy) to provide meaningful comparisons. The swimmer’s competitive level was determined by the international point score (IPS). Swimmers with no physical disability were significantly faster in most swim-start phases compared with those with physical disabilities, as were swimmers with low-severity disabilities compared with the mid- and high-severity groups. Block velocity was highly negatively correlated (r = –0.57 to –0.86) with 15-m swimming time for all groups except high-severity disabilities. Free-swim velocity is a priority area for improving swim-starts for swimmers regardless of disability, given large correlations between this measure and IPS. Swimmers with lower body or high-severity disabilities spent a smaller percentage of time overall in the underwater phase. Assessment of four specific phases of the swim-start highlight distinctive priorities for coaches working with Paralympic swimmers in an applied biomechanical manner.

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Brock Laschowski, Naser Mehrabi and John McPhee

Wheelchair curling debuted at the 2006 Paralympic Games. Competing athletes utilize the same stones and ice sheets as Olympic curlers, although sweeping (ie, using a broom to control the stone’s trajectory) is omitted and the stone must be pushed from a stationary wheelchair using a delivery stick

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Jeffrey Martin, Mario Vassallo, Jacklyn Carrico and Ellen Armstrong

, 2017 ). In particular, elite sport competitions such as the Paralympics and Olympics are considered ideal settings to observe intense emotional expressions associated with both success (e.g., joy) and failure (e.g., anguish) because winning at the Paralympics and Olympics is considered the pinnacle of

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Jessica R. Fairbairn and Kellie C. Huxel Bliven

Clinical Scenario The inaugural Paralympic games were held in 1960, yet it was not until 1976 when injuries during the games were first documented. 1 There are limited epidemiological data on disabled athletes due to inconsistent documentation, lack of definitions of injuries, reliance on self

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Irineu Loturco, Lucas A. Pereira, Ciro Winckler, Weverton L. Santos, Ronaldo Kobal and Michael McGuigan

populations. 6 This could provide practitioners with more accurate information regarding athletes who regularly train and compete at extremely low velocities (ie, bar velocity at 1RM). 6 , 10 Furthermore, given the lack of studies involving Paralympic athletes at all levels and disciplines, it would also be

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Ljudmila Zaletelj

Edited by Simon Darcy, Stephen Frawley, and Daryl Adair. Published 2017 by Palgrave Macmillan , London, UK. $58.16 , available in eBook for $54.99 . 302 pp., ISBN: 978-1-137-43520-0 Managing the Paralympics , edited by Simon Darcy, Stephen Frawley, and Daryl Adair, brings together the work of

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Cathy McKay, Jung Yeon Park and Martin Block

, 2008 ; Xafopoulos, Kudlacek, & Evaggelinou, 2009 ). Research has tended to compare contact settings as opposed to addressing contact theory ( Slininger et al., 2000 ). Of the aforementioned research referencing contact theory, four studies are specific to Paralympic School Day (PSD) and have focused

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Daniel P. Joaquim, Claudia R. Juzwiak and Ciro Winckler

dietary interventions, minimizing nutritional deficiencies ( Thomas et al., 2016 ). In this way, the aim of this study was to assess the diet quality of Brazilian Paralympic sprinters, the variations of quality between days and of the energy intake in relation to the intensity of the exercise performed in

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Scott Douglas, William R. Falcão and Gordon A. Bloom

pathways of Paralympic coaches have never been divided into periodic stages, some findings have identified similarities in the career development and learning pathways of able-bodied coaches of athletes with disabilities. For example, Cregan, Bloom, and Reid ( 2007 ) interviewed six Paralympic swim coaches

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Ciara Sinnott-O’Connor, Thomas M. Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles D. Warrington

variations within and between subject groups imply that the stress response to TL, competition, and additional external stressors is highly individual. 10 Despite the shift in focus from rehabilitative participation to elite-level sport, research into Paralympic sport has lagged behind the large body of