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Boris Blumenstein and Iris Orbach

Since the first Paralympics in 1960 there has been an increase in social and scientific interest in Paralympic athletes’ personality, their preparation, and their sport results. During the last 20 yr, researchers and practitioners have been focused on psychological-skills programs for athletes with disabilities. The purpose of this article was to describe a psychological-preparation program for Israeli Paralympic athletes. Two subprograms, the learning-modification-application approach and the Simulation Training Exercise Program, were adapted to athletes’ disability and sport demands. Two case studies, from table tennis and sailing (Sonar 3-person keelboat), are described to demonstrate how systematic sport psychology preparation can be effectively integrated into the training process of Paralympic athletes. Some recommendations for Paralympic athletes are presented.

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Luca Cavaggioni, Athos Trecroci, Damiano Formenti, Luke Hogarth, Massimiliano Tosin, and Giampietro Alberti

increase in biomotor abilities (e.g., muscle power) over time reaching a peak value close to the main international competition in Paralympic athletes ( Loturco et al., 2015 ). During a seasonal plan, top-level swimmers showed a progressive distribution of volume and intensity-training variables ( Mujika

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Daniel P. Joaquim, Claudia R. Juzwiak, and Ciro Winckler

This study aimed to assess the diet quality of Brazilian Paralympic track-and-field team sprinters and its variation between days. All sprinters (n = 28) were invited, and 20 (13 men and seven women) accepted the invitation consisting of 13 athletes with visual impairment, four with cerebral palsy, and three with limb deficiency. The dietary intake was recorded by photographic register on four consecutive days, and diet quality was determined using a revised version of the Healthy Eating Index for the Brazilian population. Physical activity was assessed using an accelerometer, and metabolic unit information was used to classify exercise intensity. Variance Analysis Model and Bonferroni multiple comparisons were used to assess relationships between variables. The correlations between variables used Pearson linear correlation coefficient. The results show that revised version of the Healthy Eating Index score was classified as “needs to be modified” for all athletes. The maximum score for the components “Whole fruits,” “Total vegetables,” and “Dark green and orange vegetables and legumes” was achieved by 23.1% and 14.3%, 7.7% and 14.3%, and 46.2% and 57.8% of male and female athletes, respectively. Only 38.5% of the male athletes achieved the maximum score for the “Total cereal” component. Female athletes achieved higher scores than male athletes for the “Milk and dairy products” component (p = .03). Intake of whole grain cereals, dairy products, vegetables, and whole fruits needs modifications to improve adequate intake of vitamins and antioxidants, highlighting the need of continuous actions of nutrition education for this population.

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David Welch Suggs Jr. and Jason Lee Guthrie

Part of the goal of the International Paralympic Committee is to “touch the heart of all people for a more equitable society” by exposing people to adaptive sports, with the goal of improving public views toward people with disabilities. The authors hypothesized that exposure to parasocial contact with images of athletes with disabilities could lead to a change in attitude during the formation of social identity, disrupting the tendency to view the population of individuals with physical disabilities as “other. ” This case study found that viewing a documentary of a Paralympic sprinter produced in the same style as an Olympic feature appeared to affect the emotional components of attitude formation, especially when compared with respondents who viewed a comparable documentary about an able-bodied athlete. These findings are of interest to proponents of adaptive sports, producers of adaptive-sports media, and marketers who use athletes with disabilities in advertising campaigns.

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Ben T. Stephenson, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey, and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

athletes regarding markers of physical and/or psychological stress. This topic is of particular relevance as Paralympic athletes may be at greater risk of excessive stress due to physical impairments causing movement inefficiencies, 17 thus heightening the internal load of movement, with impairments

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Scott Douglas, William R. Falcão, and Gordon A. Bloom

(five of whom did not have a disability) and found they never intended to coach Paralympic athletes. They began coaching these athletes when an athlete with a disability came to their club asking to be coached. In a similar manner, McMaster, Culver, and Werthner ( 2012 ) interviewed five Paralympic

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Kim Bissell, Andrew C. Billings, and Bumsoo Park

physical reactions, such as tears, elevated emotions, warmth, or goose bumps, and Fiske et al. ( 2002 ) and Bartsch and Hartmann ( 2017 ) suggest such elevation could be attained in response to viewing the talent, courage, and willpower (p. 532) of Paralympic athletes. All three empathic components reveal

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Alannah K.A. McKay, Trent Stellingwerff, Ella S. Smith, David T. Martin, Iñigo Mujika, Vicky L. Goosey-Tolfrey, Jeremy Sheppard, and Louise M. Burke

should consider age categories, or at least the inclusion of broad categories such as junior and masters competition. The Paralympic Athlete Despite the growing interest in Paralympic sport, the use and consistency for classifying training status remains in its infancy when compared to nondisabled sport

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Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Jefferson Rodrigues Dorneles, Guilherme Henrique Lopes, José Irineu Gorla, and Frederico Ribeiro Neto

vertical jump, which has been associated with competitive performance 2 and used to assess fatigue in Olympic sports, the MBT is a fast, feasible, and accessible test that might be used to measure performance outcomes in Paralympic athletes. In specific populations such as the Paralympians, the null

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Eduardo Stieler, Varley Teoldo da Costa, Aline Ângela Silva Cruz, João Paulo Pereira Rosa, Ingrid LudImilla Bastos Lôbo, Julia Romão, Andrea Maculano Esteves, Marco Tulio de Mello, and Andressa Silva

, Silva A , Ferreira-Rodrigues D , Stieler E , Tulio-de-Mello MM . The potential influence of cortisol and testosterone on psychobiological aspects in Paralympic athletes . Apunts Educ Fis Deportes . 2020 ; 4 ( 141 ): 76 – 79 . doi: 10.5672/ 14. Hayes LD